[Open surgery of calculus of the kidney pelvis. Results and complications in the era of extracorporeal lithotripsy].Ann Urol (Paris). 1995; 29(6-7):378-81.AU
From 1989 to 1993, 11,535 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) sessions were performed in 6,066 patients in our centre. In contrast, simple or extended pyelolithotomy was the treatment of choice in a small group of patients. The object of this paper is to review the results and complications of this type of operation. A total of 57 pyelolithotomies was performed, including 33 extended pyelolithotomies, in 55 patients (26 men and 29 women). The mean age of the series was 50 years (range: 5-77). The operated kidney was the left kidney in 34 cases and the right kidney in 23 cases. The mean interval between the diagnosis and the operation was 31 months. 64% of the patients had history of stone disease (33 ipsilateral and 2 bilateral). Thirteen patients had already been treated by ESWL (10 patients), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) (2 cases) and one case had previously undergone pyelolithotomy. A urinary tract infection was observed in 26 patients (47%). The incision consisted of lumbotomy in 40 patients (71%), or a subcostal incision in 12 cases. The mean operating time was 161 minutes (range: 90-245) and the mean intraoperative bleeding was 500 ml. Thirteen patients were transfused (23%). The renal artery had to be clamped in 9 cases (for an average of 19 minutes). After a mean follow-up of 20 month, 50.8% of patients were stone-free. 49% of patients presented residual caliceal fragments on the immediate postoperative X-ray. One patient had to be treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ESWL. 12 cases (41% of patients with residual fragments) required subsequent treatment by ESWL and the remaining patients with residual fragments were asymptomatic and did not receive any further treatment. The immediate postoperative complication rate was 17% and 10% of patients developed late postoperative complications. Simple or extended pyelolithotomy remains an effective treatment for stones of the renal pelvis, either on its own or associated with ESWL. However, the possibility of serious complications demands meticulous patient selection.