[A 62-year-old man with familial parkinsonism with the onset at 24 years of the age].No To Shinkei. 1996 Jun; 48(6):587-97.NT
We report a right-handed 62-year-old man with early onset familial parkinsonism. The patient was well until 24 years of the age when he noted an onset of resting tremor in his right hand. During the next four years, he noted rigidity, bradykinesia, and difficulty in walking. He was seen in another hospital at 28 years of the age, where he received left pallidotomy. Rigidity on the left side showed marked improvement. He received right pallidotomy at age 30 years. He developed right hemiplegia after this surgery. He was admitted to our hospital in March, 1983 when he was 51 years of the age. He was treated with levodopa but improvement was rather of minor degree. He was transferred to another hospital, but his motor disturbance progressed slowly, and was admitted again to our hospital in November 1990. He had 6 siblings 4 of whom including himself suffered from parkinsonism. No consanguinity was noted in parents. On admission, he appeared chronically ill but the general physical examination was unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed an alert and mentally sound man. Hasegawa dementia scale was 28.5/32.5. Upward gaze was slightly restricted (3/5). Cranial nerve examination revealed oculogyric crisis, apraxia of eyelid opening, masked face, and small voice. He was able to stand with support; his posture showed left-ward leaning. He had right hemiparesis with moderate weakness. He showed marked bradykinesia and moderate rigidity in his left upper extremity. Fine postural tremor was noted in the left hand. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper extremities. No Babinski sign was noted. Pain sensation was somewhat diminished on the right side. Results of routine laboratory examination were unremarkable. Cranial CT scan revealed atrophy in the frontal lobe, particularly in the prefrontal area. In addition, MRI revealed T1-and-T2-low signal intensity lesions in the right ventral pallidal region and in the left ventrolateral thalamic-hypothalamic areas. He was treated with 600 mg of levodopa with benserazide and 22.5 mg of bromocriptine with mild to moderate improvement in his bradykinesia and rigidity. He was discharged in January 1991. His clinical course was complicated by intestinal obstruction in October, 1994. He was admitted to another hospital where he was operated on the obstruction on November 5, 1994. The sigmoid colon was markedly dilated but no mass was found. Postoperative course was uneventful until November 18, 1994 when he was found dead in his hospital room shortly after 4 am. The patient was discussed in neurological CPC, and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had young-onset familial Lewy body-negative parkinsonism. Opinions were divided between Lewy body-positive familial Parkinson's disease and Lewy body negative young onset parkinsonism. Postmortem examination revealed aspiration pneumonia, which appeared to be the cause of his death, in the right lung. Neuropathologic examination revealed loss of malanized neurons in the substantia nigra and the locus coeruleus. In the substantia nigra, neuronal loss was particularly severe in the ventrolateral area. No Lewy bodies were seen. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve was well preserved. Stereotaxic lesions involved bilateral thalamic areas. This patient appears to represent a case of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). Early onset, superb response to levodopa, sleep effect, and easy development of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations characterize AR-JP. The reason why this patient did not show these clinical features is probably bilateral sterotaxic surgeries. Particularly, the second surgery was complicated by right hemiparesis. His siblings who developed parkinsonism showed typical clinical features of AR-JP.