Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.Can Fam Physician. 1996 Jun; 42:1142-6, 1149-52.CF
To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing.
The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals.
Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period ending 1992, restricted to English language and human.
About 200 titles were retrieved and reviewed according to the author's judgment of relevance.
"Snapshot tests" (venous and capillary blood glucose) and "memory tests" (urine glucose, glycated hemoglobin fractions and fructosamine) must be employed according to individual patients treatment goals. Day-to-day metabolic guidance is facilitated by capillary blood glucose testing for patients receiving insulin and by urine glucose testing for others. Capillary blood glucose testing is mandatory in cases of hypoglycemia unawareness (inability to sense hypoglycemia because of neuropathy) but is not a substitute for a knowledge of clinical hypoglycemia self-care. Criteria by reason (clinical judgement and cost effectiveness) must be separated from criteria by emotion (preoccupation with technology and marketing). No randomized studies show that any of these tests consistently improve clinical outcome. Optimal metabolic control and cost savings can be expected from a rational selection of tests.