[Gastrointestinal hormones. I. Hormones of the gastrin group].Z Gastroenterol. 1977 Apr; 15(4):264-76.ZG
Gastrin is a peptide hormone originating from G-cells of the antrum, the duodenum and the proximal jejunum. From extracts of gastrinomas and from sera of hypergastrinaemic subjects several gastrin molecules could be isolated which were nominated as "mini gastrin" (G13), "little gastrin" (G17), "big gastrin" (G34) and "big big gastrin". Antisera used for radioimmunological gastrin determinations should be characterized with respect to their specificity, as differeing affinity towards the various gastrins and towards CCK-PZ influences the results of the assay and thus the comparability with values of other laboratories. Gastrin is released by direct vagal stimulation of the antral G-cells and by local chemical and physical stimuli in the antrum and duodenum; probably an oxynto-pyloric reflex also exists. Gastrin stimulates in physiologic doses gastric acid secretion and, as shown in dogs and cats, reveals a trophic action on parietal cell growth. H+-secretion and gastrin release are connected by a feed back mechanism, insofar, as a decrease of intragastric pH below 3 inhibits endogenous gastrin release. Hypergastrinaemia has been demonstrated in patients with gastric anacidity or hypo-secretion, benigne pyloric stenosis, uraemia, short bowel-syndrome, gastric and duodenal ulceration and in patients with gastrinomas (Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome). Hypergastrinaemia in combination with hypersecretion exhibits clinical significance in patients suffering from Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome or excluded antrum syndrome which are due to autonomous gastrin release. The differential diagnosis between these syndromes and other diseases, in which hypergastrinaemia is not associated with gastric hypersecretion, can be achieved by several tests using calcium infusion or intravenous application of secretin and glucagon. The significance of elevated gastrin levels in patients with duodenal ulceration (DU) is pointed out. In DU-patients basal and postprandial hypergastrinaemia has been observed. In these patients gastrin release from gastric and extragastric sites is increased. In these patients hypergastrinaemia due to extragastric gastrin release could cause gastric hypersecretion at a time, when the stomach already has emptied. Furthermore parietal cell hyperplasia could be the result of chronic hypergastrinaemia.