Magnesium utilization survey in selected patients with diabetes.Clin Ther 1996 Mar-Apr; 18(2):285-94CT
Patients with diabetes mellitus were surveyed to determine magnesium utilization and supplementation patterns and the extent to which these patterns correlate with American Diabetes Association (ADA) consensus panel recommendations. Participating ADA member physicians were asked to enroll five or more patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, or type I diabetes) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, or type II diabetes) who were not currently receiving magnesium supplementation and who they believed required or could benefit from oral magnesium chloride administration. Data were then collected regarding specific patient characteristics (ie, current diabetes therapy and glucose control); concomitant diseases and cardiovascular medications; baseline serum magnesium level, if measured before initiating magnesium chloride supplementation; and magnesium chloride dosage and duration. A total of 199 patients with diabetes began treatment with magnesium chloride supplementation after enrollment by a specialist. The mean baseline serum magnesium level for patients with IDDM was 1.48 mg/dL and for patients with NIDDM was 1.44 mg/dL (normal range, 1.80 to 2.40 mg/dL). No differences in mean serum magnesium levels were observed between men and women and between those with IDDM and those with NIDDM. Glucose control, as measured by glycosylated hemoglobin Alc, did not correlate with magnesium serum levels. A concomitant cardiovascular disease was present in 70% of patients. In 78.3% of patients, supplementation was initiated because of low serum magnesium levels; in 21.7%, magnesium chloride therapy was initiated empirically. No correlation was found between serum magnesium levels and the prescribed dosage or the recommended duration of magnesium therapy. Patterns of magnesium utilization among survey respondents generally followed ADA consensus panel recommendations. A majority of diabetic patients who were given magnesium chloride supplementation had concomitant cardiovascular disease. Primary care physicians and cardiologists who treat large numbers of patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease should be knowledgeable of the ADA consensus report because of the high prevalence of hypomagnesemia and because of the consequences of magnesium deficiency in these high-risk groups. To achieve successful long-term maintenance in these patients, additional physician education appears to be necessary regarding initial dosing strategies and recommended duration of supplementation.