Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among African Americans in the 1990s: estimates from the Maywood Cardiovascular Survey.Am J Prev Med. 1996 May-Jun; 12(3):177-85.AJ
During the last decade, the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality slowed among African Americans, compared to the general population. Hypertension control is likely to play an important role in determining these trends. The Maywood Cardiovascular Survey provides estimates of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among African Americans. Between 1991 and 1993, we conducted a cardiovascular disease survey among 1,524 African Americans living in the Chicago suburb of Maywood, Illinois. Estimates of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension (defined as blood pressure [BP] > or = 140/90 mm Hg or self-reported taking of antihypertensive medications) were calculated and compared to U.S. population estimates for African Americans from NHANES II and III. The prevalence of hypertension in our sample was 32.7% (30.3, 35.1). After age-adjustment to the U.S. population, prevalence was 29.9% (27.9, 31.9), which is nonsignificantly lower than that reported for African Americans in NHANES III (32.4% [30.2, 34.6]). Awareness, pharmacologic treatment, and control on pharmacologic treatment were 81%, 56%, and 55%, respectively. These estimates are, respectively, 15%, 27%, and 42% higher than NHANES II and 7%, 9%, and 11% higher than NHANES III. Nonpharmacologic treatment alone may have accounted for up to 34% of hypertension control overall. Among previously diagnosed hypertensive subjects, risk factors for being untreated were male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3 [1.3, 21.3]) and age < 45 years (OR = 3.8 [1.1, 12.8]), and for being uncontrolled was age > or = 65 years (OR = 1.9 [1.1, 3.0]). Rates of hypertension awareness, pharmacologic treatment, and control on pharmacologic treatment are higher in this sample of African Americans than among African Americans in NHANES II and are comparable to those in NHANES III. The impact of nonpharmacologic treatments on control needs further consideration. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): hypertension, nonpharmacologic treatment, African-American males.