Controlled release of endothelial cell growth factor from chitosan-albumin microspheres for localized angiogenesis: in vitro and in vivo studies.Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 1996; 24(3):257-71AC
Endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) stimulates vascularization, however its relatively short half-life requires this angiogenic factor to be frequently administrated by non-specific and uncontrolled methods. This work describes the use of biocompatible chitosan, a polysaccharide having structural similarity to glycosaminoglycans, -albumin microspheres, as well as its fiber form, as a potential delivery system for the controlled and localized release of ECGF. Chitosan-albumin microspheres (400-600 microns) and fibers, formed in 0.5 M sodium hydroxide-methanol solution were incubated with ECGF. In vitro release was performed in PBS at 37 degrees C, under constant stirring. In vivo experiments were realized by implanting ECGF loaded matrices subcutaneously into rat groin fascia. After an initial ECGF burst of 1.32-1.62 mg (22-27%) within the first 2 hours, a daily release of 120-420 micrograms (2-7%) during the first, and 60-240 micrograms (1-4%) during the second week was observed from M(r) 70.000, 750.000, and 2,000.000 chitosan containing microspheres of 6 mg/ml loading. ECGF release rate of < 30 micrograms (0.5%)/day was maintained during the third week of experiments. By the increase in ECGF loading (12 mg/ml polymer), while the amount of release increased, percent release decreased. Chitosan-albumin fibers gave a ECGF release rate nearly similar to microspheres, and in vivo studies demonstrated a high degree of neovascularization for both types of implants, starting from 7 day-post implantation. Control animals that received ECGF injection did not show any significant neovascularization, after same period of time.