Interactions in indices of vitamin A, zinc and copper status when these nutrients are fed to rats at adequate and increased levels.Br J Nutr 1996; 75(6):915-28BJ
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding nutritionally adequate and increased levels of vitamin A (retinyl acetate at 1.4, 34.4, and 206.4 mg/kg diet) in combination with adequate or increased Zn (12 and 240 mg/kg) and Cu (5 and 50 mg/kg) on serum and tissue concentrations of retinol and retinyl palmitate and on indices of Cu and Zn status in female Sprague-Dawley rats, and to measure interactive effects of such nutrient imbalances. Rats fed on diets containing 34.4 and 206.4 mg vitamin A/kg had higher feed intakes and relative liver weights than those fed on diets containing 1.4 mg vitamin A/kg. An interaction between dietary Cu and Zn and an independent effect of vitamin A affected serum ceruloplasmin oxidase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity. Rats fed on high Zn, adequate-Cu diets (240 and 5 mg Zn and Cu/kg respectively) had lower serum ceruloplasmin oxidase levels than rats fed on adequate-Zn, adequate-Cu diets (12 and 5 mg Zn and Cu/kg respectively). This effect was not observed in rats fed on high-Zn, high-Cu diets (240 and 50 mg Zn and Cu/kg respectively). Alterations in dietary levels of Cu and vitamin A independently affected haemoglobin levels. Serum cholesterol concentration was affected by interactions between Zn and vitamin A and Cu and vitamin A. Levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver and kidney were significantly higher in rats fed on diets with increased dietary vitamin A than in those fed on diets with adequate vitamin A. Three-way interactions among Cu, Zn, and vitamin A affected levels of retinol in serum and liver. Two-way interactions between Cu and vitamin A affected liver retinyl palmitate and the sum of liver retinol+retinyl palmitate. An independent effect of dietary Zn on these variables was also observed. Interactions between Cu and vitamin A affected levels of Cu in liver and kidney, while Fe and Zn in kidney were affected by interactions between Cu and Zn. This study demonstrates that differing interactions among variables of vitamin A metabolism and mineral status occur with higher dietary levels of vitamin A, Zn and Cu in the rat.