Blood lipid docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid in term gestation infants fed formulas with high docosahexaenoic acid, low eicosapentaenoic acid fish oil.Lipids 1996; 31(6):617-25L
The effect of fish oil high in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and low in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in formula on blood lipids and growth of full-term infants was studied. Infants were fed formula with about 15% oleic acid (18:1), 32% linoleic acid (18:2n-6), 4.9% linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and 0, 0.10, or 0.22% 22:6n-3, or 35% 18:1, 20% 18:2n-6, 2.1% 18:3n-3 and 0, 0.11, or 0.24% 22:6n-3 from 3 d to 16 wk of age (n = 16,18,17,21,17,16, respectively). The formulae had < 0.1% 20:5n-3 and no arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Breast-fed infants (n = 26) were also studied. Plasma phospholipid and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) fatty acids were determined at 3 d and 4, 8, and 16 wk of age. These longitudinal analyses showed differences in blood lipid 22:6n-3 between breast-fed and formula-fed infants depending on the feeding duration. At 16 wk, infants fed formula with 0.10, 0.11% 22:6n-3, or 0.22% 22:6n-3 had similar 22:6n-3 levels in the plasma phospholipid and RBC PC and PE compared with breast-fed infants, and higher 22:6n-3 than infants fed formula without 22:6n-3. Formula with 0.24% 22:6n-3, however, resulted in higher plasma phospholipid 22:6n-3 than in breast-fed infants at 16, but not 4 or 8 wk of age. Plasma and RBC phospholipid 20:4n-6 was lower in formula-fed than breast-fed infants, but no differences in growth were found. Higher blood lipid C20 and C22 n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in infants fed formula with 20% 18:2n-6 and 2.4% 18:3n-3 compared with 32% 18:2n-6 and 4.9% 18:3n-3 show the increase in blood lipid 22:6n-3 in response to dietary 22:6n-3 depending on other fatty acids in the formula.