Some lifestyle factors in human lung cancer: a case-control study of 792 lung cancer cases.Lung Cancer. 1996 Mar; 14 Suppl 1:S121-36.LC
In order to investigate the relationship between some lifestyle factors and lung cancer, a case-control study involving all lung cancer deaths registered in 1986 was performed. The results show that among males, 92.5% of the cases and 75.5% of controls were smokers, implying that cigarette smoking is a primary risk factor for lung cancer in males. By contrast, among females only 60.6% of the cases and 30.8% of the controls were smokers, implying factors other than cigarette smoking must be involved in the development of lung cancer in females. The risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking females was found to be unaffected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A study of diet and eating habits showed that in males the risk of lung cancer was reduced by the intake of vegetables and fruits, but was significantly increased by a frequent intake of fried foods. The positive association between the intake of fried food and the risk of lung cancer could result from cooking practices and from inappropriate methods used in food preparation. No association can be demonstrated between the consumption of high protein or high fat diets, salty and smoked food items and the incidence of lung cancer. Thus, it is not likely that sufficient lung cancer inducing carcinogens can be generated through the intake of food. In addition, the positive association found to exist between the living index and the risk of lung cancer in females is consistent with the notion that coal smoke or cooking practices may generate sufficient indoor air pollutants to significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in females.