Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers with emphasis on lifestyle factors.Lung Cancer 1996; 14 Suppl 1:S39-45LC
This paper reviews primarily the epidemiological investigations which have addressed the influence of various risk factors on the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in nonsmoking Chinese females. Indoor air pollution derived from coal burning, cooking fumes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are considered, as are the involvement of general air pollution, diet and nutrients, and history of lung diseases. On the basis of existing data, coal burning, volatile chemicals emitted from cooking oils, and a history of lung disease are considered to significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking Chinese females. No associations were found between the incidence of lung cancer and exposure to ETS and outdoor air pollution. Risks for female lung cancer were negatively associated with consumption of vegetables, fruits and intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C-rich foods.