An update on liver transplantation in the United States: recipient characteristics and outcome.Clin Transpl. 1995CT
The growth in liver transplantations recorded by the Pitt-UNOS Liver Transplant Registry since October 1987 continues as does the net growth of new centers. Characteristics of pediatric recipients in 1994 were compared to those of previous years and no significant differences were found for gender, race or age. The majority of pediatric recipients in 1994 awaited transplantation at home. The most common indication for liver transplantation in children was bilary atresia, though the proportion of recipients with this primary liver disease decreased significantly. Significant increases were noted in the proportions of pediatric recipients with autoimmune disease (though this remains a relatively uncommon indication) and fulminant liver failure. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of children who received ABO-incompatible livers. Many of the characteristics examined for adult recipients changed over time. The proportion of male recipients continued to increase. The mean age of adult recipients continued to increase, likely contributing to the increased prevalence of positive CMV-serology. The proportion of adult recipients awaiting transplantation outside the hospital increased over time. The increase in the proportion of multiorgan transplantations was in large part due to the increased reporting of bone marrow/liver transplants in 1994. Hepatitis non-A, non-B, or C and alcoholic liver disease were the most common reasons for LTX. The proportions of recipients with hepatitis B, fulminant liver failure and malignancies, indications with the poorest survival, all declined significantly. The cumulative probability of surviving (without retransplantation) for 7 years after initial transplantation was 0.70 (0.57) for pediatric recipients. Despite changes in recipient characteristics, the one-year survival for pediatric recipients did not change significantly over time. Significant differences in survival, unadjusted for other factors, were found by age (the youngest recipients had the worst survival), location awaiting transplantation (greater medical intervention just prior to transplantation led to poorer survival), multiorgan transplantation, primary liver disease (survival was worst for recipients transplanted due to malignancies, and best for patients with metabolic diseases), and donor/recipient ABO matching (survival was best for recipients of livers from donors with the same blood type). These results are similar to those previously reported for 4- and 5-year survivals. The cumulative probability of adults surviving (without retransplantation) for 7 years following LTX was 0.59 (0.52). Significant differences in survival, unadjusted for other factors, were found for year of transplantation (recipients in 1994 had better one-year survival than those transplanted in previous years), sex (males had worse survival than females), race (Blacks and Asians had the poorest survivals), age (recipients 50 years of age and older had the poorest survival), location awaiting transplantation (greater medical intervention just prior to transplantation led to poorer survival), multiorgan transplantation (recipients of organs in addition to the liver had worse patient survival than recipients of liver only), and primary liver disease (the best survival was for cirrhosis due to cryptogenic or cholestatic cirrhosis, the poorest survival was for malignancies and hepatitis B). Similar results were also reported previously for 4- and 5-year survivals.