Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet.Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1995; 23:30-8.PT
The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonella test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MeIQx(2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline), DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) and IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline), although other heterocyclic amines are present and PhIP (2-amino-3-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210 degrees C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.