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Identification of new mutagenic heterocyclic amines and quantification of known heterocyclic amines.
Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1995; 23:39-49.PT

Abstract

2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4'-OH-PhIP) was mutagenic, inducing 180 revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 per 100 micrograms with S9 mix and was formed by heating a mixture of creatine, tyrosine and glucose. It was detected in broiled beef at a level of 21.0 ng per g of broiled beef, which is comparable to the level of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Two new mutagens were isolated from bacteriological-grade beef extract using a new Salmonella tester strain, YG1024, which has a much higher O-acetyltransferase level than TA98. These mutagens were identified as 2-amino-4-hydroxymethyl-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (4-CH2OH-8-MeIQx) and 2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline(7,9-DiMeIgQx++ +). The amounts of these mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in beef extract were 6.0 ng and 53 ng per g of beef extract, respectively. 4-CH2OH-8-MeIQx induced 326,000 revertants of YG1024 and 99,000 revertants of TA98 per microgram with S9 mix, while 7,9-DiMeIgQx induced 13,800 and 670 revertants of YG1024 and TA98, respectively, per microgram in the presence of S9 mix. The levels of nine previously reported HCAs in cooked meats and fish and in beef extract were determined quantitatively. The level of PhIP was highest (0.56 approximately 69.2 ng/g), followed by that of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (0.64 approximately 6.44 ng/g), and those of other HCAs were 0.03 approximately 2.50 ng/g. Mainstream smoke condensates of five Japanese brands of cigarettes contained four HCAs, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C), at levels of 0.02 approximately 13.5 ng per cigarette and sidestream smoke condensates of two brands of cigarettes contained these HCAs at levels of 0.14 approximately 2.72 ng per cigarette. PhIP was not detected in any sample of mainstream or sidestream smoke condensate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Carcinogenesis Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8844794

Citation

Wakabayashi, K, et al. "Identification of New Mutagenic Heterocyclic Amines and Quantification of Known Heterocyclic Amines." Princess Takamatsu Symposia, vol. 23, 1995, pp. 39-49.
Wakabayashi K, Kim IS, Kurosaka R, et al. Identification of new mutagenic heterocyclic amines and quantification of known heterocyclic amines. Int Symp Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res Fund. 1995;23:39-49.
Wakabayashi, K., Kim, I. S., Kurosaka, R., Yamaizumi, Z., Ushiyama, H., Takahashi, M., Koyota, S., Tada, A., Nukaya, H., & Goto, S. (1995). Identification of new mutagenic heterocyclic amines and quantification of known heterocyclic amines. Princess Takamatsu Symposia, 23, 39-49.
Wakabayashi K, et al. Identification of New Mutagenic Heterocyclic Amines and Quantification of Known Heterocyclic Amines. Int Symp Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res Fund. 1995;23:39-49. PubMed PMID: 8844794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Identification of new mutagenic heterocyclic amines and quantification of known heterocyclic amines. A1 - Wakabayashi,K, AU - Kim,I S, AU - Kurosaka,R, AU - Yamaizumi,Z, AU - Ushiyama,H, AU - Takahashi,M, AU - Koyota,S, AU - Tada,A, AU - Nukaya,H, AU - Goto,S, PY - 1995/1/1/pubmed PY - 1995/1/1/medline PY - 1995/1/1/entrez SP - 39 EP - 49 JF - Princess Takamatsu symposia JO - Int. Symp. Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res. Fund VL - 23 N2 - 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4'-OH-PhIP) was mutagenic, inducing 180 revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 per 100 micrograms with S9 mix and was formed by heating a mixture of creatine, tyrosine and glucose. It was detected in broiled beef at a level of 21.0 ng per g of broiled beef, which is comparable to the level of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Two new mutagens were isolated from bacteriological-grade beef extract using a new Salmonella tester strain, YG1024, which has a much higher O-acetyltransferase level than TA98. These mutagens were identified as 2-amino-4-hydroxymethyl-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (4-CH2OH-8-MeIQx) and 2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline(7,9-DiMeIgQx++ +). The amounts of these mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in beef extract were 6.0 ng and 53 ng per g of beef extract, respectively. 4-CH2OH-8-MeIQx induced 326,000 revertants of YG1024 and 99,000 revertants of TA98 per microgram with S9 mix, while 7,9-DiMeIgQx induced 13,800 and 670 revertants of YG1024 and TA98, respectively, per microgram in the presence of S9 mix. The levels of nine previously reported HCAs in cooked meats and fish and in beef extract were determined quantitatively. The level of PhIP was highest (0.56 approximately 69.2 ng/g), followed by that of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (0.64 approximately 6.44 ng/g), and those of other HCAs were 0.03 approximately 2.50 ng/g. Mainstream smoke condensates of five Japanese brands of cigarettes contained four HCAs, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C), at levels of 0.02 approximately 13.5 ng per cigarette and sidestream smoke condensates of two brands of cigarettes contained these HCAs at levels of 0.14 approximately 2.72 ng per cigarette. PhIP was not detected in any sample of mainstream or sidestream smoke condensate. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8844794/Identification_of_new_mutagenic_heterocyclic_amines_and_quantification_of_known_heterocyclic_amines_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -