Aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in chronic intermittent hemodialysis patients.Clin Nephrol. 1996 Feb; 45(2):111-9.CN
BACKGROUND AND METHODS
Prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremia necessitates correction of hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. In order to avoid aluminum toxicity, calcium containing phosphate binders are used increasingly, instead of aluminium hydroxide. Recent studies have shown that calcium acetate has many characteristics of an ideal phosphate binder. It is, for instance, a more readily soluble salt compared with calcium carbonate. This advantage might, however, disappear if calcium carbonate is taken on an empty stomach, a few minutes before meals. We examined the efficacy of three different phosphate binding agents in a randomized prospective study of 53 patients on regular hemodialysis. Bicarbonate dialyses were performed with a dialysate calcium concentration of 1.75 mmol/l. After a three-week wash-out period, patients received either aluminum hydroxide (control group), calcium acetate, or calcium carbonate as their phosphate binder. Patients were instructed to take the calcium salts a few minutes before meals on an empty stomach, and aluminum hydroxide during meals. Serum calcium, phosphate, intact parathormone, and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined every month. Patient compliance was estimated every month by asking the patients which phosphate binder and what daily dose they had used.
Aluminum hydroxide tended to be the most effective phosphate binder. The mean +/- SEM required daily dose of calcium acetate at 12 months was 5.04 +/- 0.60 g, corresponding to 10.1 +/- 1.20 tablets of 500 mg. Co-medication with aluminum hydroxide, however, was needed (1.29 +/- 0.54 g per day, corresponding to 2.6 +/- 1.08 tablets of 500 mg). The required daily calcium carbonate dose appeared to be 2.71 +/- 0.48 g, corresponding to 5.4 +/- 0.95 capsules of 500 mg, with an adjuvant daily aluminum hydroxide dose of 0.69 +/- 0.27 g, corresponding to 1.4 +/- 0.55 tablets of 500 mg (p = 0.0055). Thus, the mean daily doses of elemental calcium were comparable between the calcium acetate and calcium carbonate-treated patients (1.28 +/- 0.15 g versus 1.09 +/- 0.19 g; n.s.). The incidence of hypercalcemic episodes (albumin-corrected serum calcium levels above 2.80 mmol/l) in the calcium acetate-treated group was 18% versus 31% in the calcium carbonate-treated group (p < 0.005). None of the aluminum hydroxide-treated patients experienced hypercalcemic episodes. Mean serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, intact parathormone, and aluminum did not differ between the groups.
In chronic intermittent hemodialysis patients, per gram administered elemental calcium phosphate binding with either calcium acetate or calcium carbonate is equivalent, provided that calcium carbonate is taken on an empty stomach a few minutes before meals. The number of capsules calcium carbonate, but also the total amount in grams, necessary to keep serum phosphate and intact parathormone levels into an acceptable range then is significantly less. This might improve patient compliance.