Antibody responses in volunteers induced by nasal influenza vaccine combined with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit containing a trace amount of the holotoxin.Vaccine 1996; 14(2):113-9V
Evaluation of the efficacy of nasal influenza vaccine combined with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) containing a trace amount of the holotoxin (LT) in inducing antibody responses among volunteers, which was conducted during the winter season of 1993-1994, is reported. A trivalent inactivated vaccine, composed of A/Yamagata/32/89 (H1N1), A/Kitakyusyu/159/93 (H3N2) and B/Bangkok/163/90 influenza virus strains, was used alone or together with the adjuvant, recombinant LTB supplemented with 0.5% recombinant LT (LTB*). The volunteers were divided into two groups: 73 volunteers (mean age 35.0 +/- 12.0 years) inoculated intranasally (i.n.) with LTB*-combined vaccine and 49 volunteers (37.9 +/- 11.3) inoculated i.n. with the vaccine alone. Vaccination was done twice 4 weeks apart. Salivary secretory IgA and serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies were measured before and 8 weeks after the primary vaccination. For the sake of convenience, more than a 1.4-fold rise in IgA antibody response (units of specific IgA antibody per microgram of total IgA) and a fourfold or greater rise in HI antibody titer after vaccination were regarded as a positive antibody response. Thirty-seven (50.3%) and 36 (49.3%) of the 73 vaccinees, respectively, given the nasal LTB*-combined vaccine showed positive IgA and HI antibody responses to one or more of the three vaccine strains. In comparison, positive antibody responses in the group given vaccine alone were 32.7% for IgA and 30.6% for HI antibody. There was a significant difference between these two groups. These results suggest that the nasal LTB*-combined vaccine could enhance the production of higher levels not only of serum HI antibody but IgA antibodies in the respiratory tract than do the nasal vaccine alone.