Longitudinal changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81(10):3487-91JC
The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with accelerated bone loss in postmenopausal women, 2) whether bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover change to a similar extent with surgery and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in these patients, and 3) whether biochemical markers of bone turnover measured at baseline can be used to predict the change in BMD in these patients after different therapies. We studied 33 postmenopausal women with PHPT; their ages at the time of study ranged from 48-80 yr (mean +/- SD, 63 +/- 10). Total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline and 10-30 months (19 +/- 5) after parathyroid surgery, HRT, or no treatment. BMD was measured in 33 age-matched healthy controls at baseline and at a mean of 24 months. Baseline biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured in controls. In PHPT at baseline, the mean z-score of BMD was -1.25 at TB (95% confidence interval, -1.64 to -0.86), -0.95 at LS (-1.37 to -0.53), and -1.30 at FN (-1.65 to -0.95), whereas the mean z score was 0.45 for serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen (0.02-0.89), 1.05 for bone alkaline phosphatase (0.38-1.71), 2.38 for 24-h urinary excretion of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx; 1.63-3.13), and 2.36 for 24-h urinary excretion of galactosyl hydroxylysine (1.97-2.74). After surgery and HRT, BMD increased and bone turnover decreased during the follow-up. In the untreated group, BMD decreased at TB and FN, and levels of bone alkaline phosphatase, NTx/creatinine, and galactosyl hydroxylysine/creatinine increased. When the rate of change in BMD (percentage per yr) was compared with that in the control group, bone gain was significant at all three skeletal sites after surgery and HRT, and bone loss was significant at TB and FN, but not at LS, in the untreated group. There was a weak, but significant, correlation between baseline urinary NTx and the change in femoral neck BMD in the untreated group (r = -0.36; P = 0.05). We conclude that untreated postmenopausal women with PHPT have low BMD resulting from accelerated bone loss at the TB and FN. Surgery and HRT both restore BMD and bone turnover toward normal in postmenopausal women with PHPT. A single measurement of bone turnover is insufficient to predict BMD changes in individual patients with PHPT.