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Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jul; 50(7):409-17.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effect of isoenergetically-dense, high-protein (HP), high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfasts (at 08.30) on subjective hunger, fullness and appetite (measured hourly on a 100 mm visual analogue scale), macronutrient balance and ad libitum energy intake (EI), at a test meal (13.30) and throughout the rest of the day (until 23.00).

DESIGN

Six men each spent 24 h in a whole-body indirect calorimeter on three separate occasions during which they received breakfasts designed to match 75% of BMR and that comprised, on average 3.1 MJ of protein (HP), carbohydrate (HC) or fat (HF), respectively, the remainder being split between the other two macronutrients. Every item of the ad libitum diet comprised 13% protein, 40% fat and 47% carbohydrate by energy, with an energy density of 550 kJ/100 g.

RESULTS

Subjectively-rated pleasantness did not differ between the breakfasts, or any of the subsequent ad libitum meals. Subjective hunger was significantly greater during the hours between breakfast and lunch after the HF (26) treatment relative to the HP (18) or HC (18 mm) meals (P < 0.001), although the HP treatment suppressed hunger to a greater extent than the other two treatments over 24 h. However, mean ad libitum lunch intakes were similar at 5.38, 5.30 and 5.18 MJ (NS) on the HP, HC and HF treatments, respectively. After-lunch intakes were also very similar at 6.14, 6.18 and 5.83 MJ (NS). Mean 24-h energy expenditure amounted to 11.12, 11.14 and 10.93 MJ, respectively, producing energy balances of 5.71, 5.83 and 5.04 MJ (NS), respectively. The HP, HF and HC breakfasts led to enhanced P, F and C oxidation, respectively (P < 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

Large HP, HC or HF breakfasts led to detectable changes in hunger that were not of sufficient magnitude to influence lunch-time intake 5 h later, or EI for the rest of the day. A single positive balance of each macronutrient can be buffered by oxidation and storage capacity, without leading to changes in meal-to-meal EI, when subjects feed ad libitum on unfamiliar diets of fixed composition.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8862476

Citation

Stubbs, R J., et al. "Breakfasts High in Protein, Fat or Carbohydrate: Effect On Within-day Appetite and Energy Balance." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 7, 1996, pp. 409-17.
Stubbs RJ, van Wyk MC, Johnstone AM, et al. Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(7):409-17.
Stubbs, R. J., van Wyk, M. C., Johnstone, A. M., & Harbron, C. G. (1996). Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50(7), 409-17.
Stubbs RJ, et al. Breakfasts High in Protein, Fat or Carbohydrate: Effect On Within-day Appetite and Energy Balance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(7):409-17. PubMed PMID: 8862476.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. AU - Stubbs,R J, AU - van Wyk,M C, AU - Johnstone,A M, AU - Harbron,C G, PY - 1996/7/1/pubmed PY - 1996/7/1/medline PY - 1996/7/1/entrez SP - 409 EP - 17 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 50 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of isoenergetically-dense, high-protein (HP), high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfasts (at 08.30) on subjective hunger, fullness and appetite (measured hourly on a 100 mm visual analogue scale), macronutrient balance and ad libitum energy intake (EI), at a test meal (13.30) and throughout the rest of the day (until 23.00). DESIGN: Six men each spent 24 h in a whole-body indirect calorimeter on three separate occasions during which they received breakfasts designed to match 75% of BMR and that comprised, on average 3.1 MJ of protein (HP), carbohydrate (HC) or fat (HF), respectively, the remainder being split between the other two macronutrients. Every item of the ad libitum diet comprised 13% protein, 40% fat and 47% carbohydrate by energy, with an energy density of 550 kJ/100 g. RESULTS: Subjectively-rated pleasantness did not differ between the breakfasts, or any of the subsequent ad libitum meals. Subjective hunger was significantly greater during the hours between breakfast and lunch after the HF (26) treatment relative to the HP (18) or HC (18 mm) meals (P < 0.001), although the HP treatment suppressed hunger to a greater extent than the other two treatments over 24 h. However, mean ad libitum lunch intakes were similar at 5.38, 5.30 and 5.18 MJ (NS) on the HP, HC and HF treatments, respectively. After-lunch intakes were also very similar at 6.14, 6.18 and 5.83 MJ (NS). Mean 24-h energy expenditure amounted to 11.12, 11.14 and 10.93 MJ, respectively, producing energy balances of 5.71, 5.83 and 5.04 MJ (NS), respectively. The HP, HF and HC breakfasts led to enhanced P, F and C oxidation, respectively (P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Large HP, HC or HF breakfasts led to detectable changes in hunger that were not of sufficient magnitude to influence lunch-time intake 5 h later, or EI for the rest of the day. A single positive balance of each macronutrient can be buffered by oxidation and storage capacity, without leading to changes in meal-to-meal EI, when subjects feed ad libitum on unfamiliar diets of fixed composition. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8862476/Breakfasts_high_in_protein_fat_or_carbohydrate:_effect_on_within_day_appetite_and_energy_balance_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/dietaryfats.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -