Generation of glycolaldehyde from guinea pig airway epithelial monolayers exposed to nitrogen dioxide and its effects on sodium pump activity.Environ Health Perspect 1996; 104(8):852-6EH
Pulmonary injury from nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may in part be related to the generation of aldehydic compounds, which bind with cellular proteins and subsequently impair or inhibit cell function. We examined the generation of aldehydes from guinea pig tracheobronchial epithelial (GPTE) cell monolayers exposed to NO2. With the use of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP) to derivatize aldehydic compounds, glycolaldehyde, a two carbon alpha-hydroxyaldehyde, was identified in elevated levels in the basolateral fluid from monolayers exposed to NO2. DNP-glycolaldehyde levels were 81.2 +/- 2.7 and 234.0 +/- 42.6 nM in response to a 1-hr exposure to 1 and 5 ppm NO2, respectively, as compared to an air-control value of 20.3 +/- 6.8 nM. Taking into account dilution and reactivity, cellular glycolaldehyde levels could have reached as high as 3 mM for the 60-min exposure period (i.e., 0.05 mM/min). The effects of exogenous glycolaldehyde on GPTE ouabain-sensitive basolateral 86Rb uptake (an index of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity) were examined and compared with the actions of NO2 exposure. Bolus addition of glycolaldehyde to the basolateral fluid at concentrations > or = 5 mM led to an inhibition of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, while lower concentrations had no effect. the effects of exogenous glycolaldehyde differ from NO2 exposure, which led to a sustained elevation of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake with presumed generation of glycolaldehyde at a continuous low level. Glycolaldehyde does not appear to play a significant role in the acute alterations of sodium pump activity, suggesting that the NO2-induced changes in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of GPTE monolayers probably are further mediated by other lipid peroxidation products/oxidation processes yet to be identified.