Effect of fat- and sucrose-containing foods on the size of eating episodes and energy intake in lean dietary restrained and unrestrained females: potential for causing overconsumption.Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Sep; 50(9):625-35.EJ
This study compared the action of high fat and high sucrose foods on snack size (satiation) and post snack satiety, in dietary unrestrained (UR) and restrained (R) lean females.
2 x 2 within-subjects design, each subject received each of four conditions in a counter-balanced order.
The Human Appetite Research Unit.
10 R and 10 UR lean young female students.
Subjects consumed a low (1678 kJ) or high (2971 kJ) energy lunch, followed 2 hours later by an ad libitum snack consisting of a selection of high fat, low sucrose or high sucrose, low fat foods. Visual analogue rating scales recording subjective feelings of appetite were completed periodically.
Energy intake at the snack was related to level of hunger (P < 0.01) and snack macronutrient composition (P < 0.001). Subjects consumed more energy when offered high fat snack foods, and more following a low energy lunch. Total group energy intake of the high fat snack selection following the low and high energy lunch was 4.39 and 3.63 MJ respectively, energy intake of the high sucrose snack selection following the low and high energy lunch was 3.03 and 2.81 MJ respectively. Post snack satiety was similar. Mean test day energy intake (including standard breakfast, fixed lunch, test snack and rest of day intake) was least when a low energy lunch was followed by an ad libitum snack of high sucrose foods. Some differences were seen between R and UR. R consumed more energy at the high fat snack following a low energy lunch, but not a high energy lunch. UR consumed more of the high fat snack following both lunch types. R consumed less energy (excluding alcoholic drinks) over the test day than UR (P < 0.05), and also less on the day following the study day (P < 0.05). R generally rated themselves as lower on measures of appetite, and rated the high fat snacks as more pleasant.
These results indicate the energy intake of an eating episode is related to hunger level and macronutrient composition of foods consumed. High fat foods give rise to higher current energy intake than high sucrose foods, and kilojoule for kilojoule are less effective in suppressing subsequent food intake.