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The history of spinal biomechanics.
Neurosurgery. 1996 Oct; 39(4):657-68; discussion 668-9.N

Abstract

The history of spinal biomechanics has its origins in antiquity. The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, an Egyptian document written in the 17th century BC, described the difference between cervical sprain, fracture, and fracture-dislocation. By the time of Hippocrates (4th century BC), physical means such as traction or local pressure were being used to correct spinal deformities but the treatments were based on only a rudimentary knowledge of spinal biomechanics. The Renaissance produced the first serious attempts at understanding spinal biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) accurately described the anatomy of the spine and was perhaps the first to investigate spinal stability. The first comprehensive treatise on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, was published by Giovanni Borelli in 1680, and it contained the first analysis of weight bearing by the spine. In this regard, Borelli can be considered the "Father of Spinal Biomechanics." By the end of the 19th century, the basic biomechanical concepts of spinal alignment and immobilization were well entrenched as therapies for spinal cord injury. Further anatomic delineation of spinal stability was sparked by the anatomic analyses of judicial hangings by Wood-Jones in 1913. By the 1960s, a two-column model of the spine was proposed by Holdsworth. The modern concept of Denis' three-column model of the spine is supported by more sophisticated testing of cadaver spines in modern biomechanical laboratories. The modern explosion of spinal instrumentation stems from a deeper understanding of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Hospital System, Minneapolis, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8880756

Citation

Sanan, A, and S S. Rengachary. "The History of Spinal Biomechanics." Neurosurgery, vol. 39, no. 4, 1996, pp. 657-68; discussion 668-9.
Sanan A, Rengachary SS. The history of spinal biomechanics. Neurosurgery. 1996;39(4):657-68; discussion 668-9.
Sanan, A., & Rengachary, S. S. (1996). The history of spinal biomechanics. Neurosurgery, 39(4), 657-68; discussion 668-9.
Sanan A, Rengachary SS. The History of Spinal Biomechanics. Neurosurgery. 1996;39(4):657-68; discussion 668-9. PubMed PMID: 8880756.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The history of spinal biomechanics. AU - Sanan,A, AU - Rengachary,S S, PY - 1996/10/1/pubmed PY - 1996/10/1/medline PY - 1996/10/1/entrez SP - 657-68; discussion 668-9 JF - Neurosurgery JO - Neurosurgery VL - 39 IS - 4 N2 - The history of spinal biomechanics has its origins in antiquity. The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, an Egyptian document written in the 17th century BC, described the difference between cervical sprain, fracture, and fracture-dislocation. By the time of Hippocrates (4th century BC), physical means such as traction or local pressure were being used to correct spinal deformities but the treatments were based on only a rudimentary knowledge of spinal biomechanics. The Renaissance produced the first serious attempts at understanding spinal biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) accurately described the anatomy of the spine and was perhaps the first to investigate spinal stability. The first comprehensive treatise on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, was published by Giovanni Borelli in 1680, and it contained the first analysis of weight bearing by the spine. In this regard, Borelli can be considered the "Father of Spinal Biomechanics." By the end of the 19th century, the basic biomechanical concepts of spinal alignment and immobilization were well entrenched as therapies for spinal cord injury. Further anatomic delineation of spinal stability was sparked by the anatomic analyses of judicial hangings by Wood-Jones in 1913. By the 1960s, a two-column model of the spine was proposed by Holdsworth. The modern concept of Denis' three-column model of the spine is supported by more sophisticated testing of cadaver spines in modern biomechanical laboratories. The modern explosion of spinal instrumentation stems from a deeper understanding of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column. SN - 0148-396X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8880756/The_history_of_spinal_biomechanics_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-lookup/doi/10.1097/00006123-199610000-00001 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -