Effects of soaking, cooking and fermentation on composition, in-vitro starch digestibility and nutritive value of common beans.Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1995 Dec; 48(4):349-65.PF
A common bean variety, grown in Burundi, was either fermented, soaked and/or cooked, and then assessed for nutrient composition, in-vitro starch digestibility and protein nutritive value. A decrease in ash, most minerals, vitamins, and some essential amino acids was noted for soaked, cooked and soaked-cooked beans. Compared to untreated beans, soaking decreased soluble sugar (9.8 percent) but increased starch (7.3 percent) and soluble fiber (16.9 percent). In cooked beans, an increase in soluble sugar (1.5 percent), and a decrease in thiamine (81.7 percent), starch (24.6 percent) and soluble fiber (16.6 percent) and nitrogen (2.9 percent) contents were observed. Crude fiber (6.9 percent) and starch (10.0 percent) increased while fat (17.6 percent), fatty acids (linoleic: 10.7 percent; linolenic: 14.3 percent) and soluble sugars (25.4 percent) and nitrogen (14.4 percent) decreased in soaked-cooked beans. Fermentation increased potassium (11.6 percent), soluble fiber (18.9 percent), and some amino acids but decreased fatty acids (linoleic: 13.5 percent; linolenic: 19.9 percent), soluble sugar (75.2 percent) and vitamin (riboflavin: 41.0 percent; niacin: 24.5 percent) contents in common beans. However, the in-vitro starch digestibility was greatly improved (12.3 percent) by cooking while it decreased in soaked beans (29.2 percent). Soaking-cooking and fermentation did not have any significant effect on the digestibility of common bean starch. Finally, among the five treatments applied to common beans, only fermentation showed a significant improvement (8.3 percent) on the protein nutritive value of this legume.