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Intermediate results of the extracardiac Fontan procedure.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Nov; 62(5):1261-7; discussion 1266-7.AT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Fourteen children (ages 2 to 14 years) and 1 adult (32 years) have undergone a modification of the Fontan procedure in which an extracardiac lateral tunnel or conduit is used in combination with staged or simultaneous bidirectional Glenn shunt(s).

METHODS

Extracardiac lateral tunnels (n = 9) were constructed using a polytetrafluoroethylene patch (n = 7), pericardial patch (n = 1), or in situ pericardial flap (n = 1). Extracardiac lateral conduits (n = 6) were constructed using nonvalved homografts (n = 2) or polytetrafluoroethylene tube grafts (n = 4). Fenestrations were created in 4 patients (2 each in extracardiac lateral tunnel and extracardiac lateral conduit patients). Aortic cross-clamping was completely avoided in 12/15 patients (aortic cross-clamping in 2 patients for atrial septal defect enlargement and 1 for Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure).

RESULTS

There have been no operative deaths. Prolonged postoperative chest tube drainage (> 2 weeks) has been rare (n = 1). At follow-up (range, 6 to 54 months; mean, 27.5 months), all patients are in New York Heart Association class I or II and remain in normal sinus rhythm. Late protein-losing enteropathy was seen in 1 patient and was successfully treated by percutaneous creation of a stented fenestration from the extracardiac tunnel to the systemic atrium. Late catheterizations reveal unobstructed extracardiac lateral tunnel function and low pulmonary pressures (range, 11 to 13 mm Hg). Advantages of the extracardiac Fontan include (1) avoidance of aortic cross-clamping in most patients, (2) the hemodynamic benefits of total cavopulmonary connection, (3) avoidance of atriotomy and intraatrial suture lines, (4) preservation of sinus rhythm and no arrhythmias at 2 year follow-up, (5) drainage of the coronary sinus to low pressure atrium, (6) allowance for early/late fenestrations, (7) prevention of baffle leaks and intraatrial obstruction, and (8) allowance for growth (tunnel procedures only).

CONCLUSIONS

We recommend this extracardiac procedure for all suitable patients undergoing surgical conversion to the Fontan circulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8893555

Citation

Laschinger, J C., et al. "Intermediate Results of the Extracardiac Fontan Procedure." The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 5, 1996, pp. 1261-7; discussion 1266-7.
Laschinger JC, Redmond JM, Cameron DE, et al. Intermediate results of the extracardiac Fontan procedure. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(5):1261-7; discussion 1266-7.
Laschinger, J. C., Redmond, J. M., Cameron, D. E., Kan, J. S., & Ringel, R. E. (1996). Intermediate results of the extracardiac Fontan procedure. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 62(5), 1261-7; discussion 1266-7.
Laschinger JC, et al. Intermediate Results of the Extracardiac Fontan Procedure. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(5):1261-7; discussion 1266-7. PubMed PMID: 8893555.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intermediate results of the extracardiac Fontan procedure. AU - Laschinger,J C, AU - Redmond,J M, AU - Cameron,D E, AU - Kan,J S, AU - Ringel,R E, PY - 1996/11/1/pubmed PY - 1996/11/1/medline PY - 1996/11/1/entrez SP - 1261-7; discussion 1266-7 JF - The Annals of thoracic surgery JO - Ann. Thorac. Surg. VL - 62 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Fourteen children (ages 2 to 14 years) and 1 adult (32 years) have undergone a modification of the Fontan procedure in which an extracardiac lateral tunnel or conduit is used in combination with staged or simultaneous bidirectional Glenn shunt(s). METHODS: Extracardiac lateral tunnels (n = 9) were constructed using a polytetrafluoroethylene patch (n = 7), pericardial patch (n = 1), or in situ pericardial flap (n = 1). Extracardiac lateral conduits (n = 6) were constructed using nonvalved homografts (n = 2) or polytetrafluoroethylene tube grafts (n = 4). Fenestrations were created in 4 patients (2 each in extracardiac lateral tunnel and extracardiac lateral conduit patients). Aortic cross-clamping was completely avoided in 12/15 patients (aortic cross-clamping in 2 patients for atrial septal defect enlargement and 1 for Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure). RESULTS: There have been no operative deaths. Prolonged postoperative chest tube drainage (> 2 weeks) has been rare (n = 1). At follow-up (range, 6 to 54 months; mean, 27.5 months), all patients are in New York Heart Association class I or II and remain in normal sinus rhythm. Late protein-losing enteropathy was seen in 1 patient and was successfully treated by percutaneous creation of a stented fenestration from the extracardiac tunnel to the systemic atrium. Late catheterizations reveal unobstructed extracardiac lateral tunnel function and low pulmonary pressures (range, 11 to 13 mm Hg). Advantages of the extracardiac Fontan include (1) avoidance of aortic cross-clamping in most patients, (2) the hemodynamic benefits of total cavopulmonary connection, (3) avoidance of atriotomy and intraatrial suture lines, (4) preservation of sinus rhythm and no arrhythmias at 2 year follow-up, (5) drainage of the coronary sinus to low pressure atrium, (6) allowance for early/late fenestrations, (7) prevention of baffle leaks and intraatrial obstruction, and (8) allowance for growth (tunnel procedures only). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend this extracardiac procedure for all suitable patients undergoing surgical conversion to the Fontan circulation. SN - 0003-4975 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8893555/Intermediate_results_of_the_extracardiac_Fontan_procedure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0003-4975(96)00747-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -