The association between participant characteristics and serum concentrations of beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, and alpha-tocopherol among participants in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) for prevention of lung cancer.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5(10):815-21CE
As part of the multicenter Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) lung cancer prevention study, we investigated the associations of baseline demographic, health history, and nutritional intake information and the prerandomization serum concentrations of beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, and alpha-tocopherol in a random subset of 1182 smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. Dietary intake was estimated via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire using the recently updated United States Department of Agriculture/National Cancer Institute database. In multiple regression analyses, supplemental vitamin use was the strongest predictor of each of the four analytes. There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between smoking and beta-carotene concentrations. Lower serum beta-carotene was associated with current smoking, higher daily cigarettes smoked, and more pack-years. Serum beta-carotene concentrations were higher with increasing years since stopping cigarette use, which suggests a biological mechanism for the lower serum concentration of beta-carotene in smokers. We found weak inverse associations between alcohol intake and the serum concentrations of both beta-carotene and retinol. As in previous reports, dietary intakes as measured by a food frequency questionnaire can only moderately predict serum concentrations of beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, and alpha-tocopherol.