The effects of tonicity, glucose concentration and temperature of an oral rehydration solution on its absorption and elimination.Equine Vet J Suppl. 1995 NovEV
Effects of different tonicities, glucose concentrations and temperatures of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) on its uptake and elimination in resting horses were studied. Fluid and electrolyte deficits similar to those occurring during prolonged exercise were induced by the administration of 1 mg/kg bwt of frusemide i.m., 3 h prior to the ORS. Fluid was administered via nasogastric tube at a volume equivalent to 4% bodyweight, which approximated diuretic induced losses. The uptake of fluid was evaluated by changes in haematocrit (PCV) and plasma total protein concentration (TP). Changes in electrolyte balance were studied by measurements of plasma and urinary electrolyte concentrations while changes in bodyweight, urine volume and faecal water content were used to estimate retention of the administered fluids. Changes in acid base status were assessed from venous blood bicarbonate values. Fluid tonicity had a major effect on the uptake and elimination of the ORS. The hypertonic fluid (628 mOsm/kg bwt) was less rapidly absorbed and resulted in more rapid fluid and electrolyte excretion than the isotonic (314 mOsm/kg bwt) and hypotonic (water) fluids. The inclusion of glucose did not enhance the absorption of the ORS, although fluids containing higher concentrations of electrolytes resulted in more rapid elimination of fluid in urine. There was a direct relationship between higher concentrations of sodium in the ORS, plasma sodium values and osmolality. Fluid temperature (5, 21 and 37 degrees C) had no demonstrable effect on absorption of the ORS and elimination of fluids post administration. We concluded that while glucose concentration and fluid temperature have minimal effects on fluid absorption and elimination, fluid tonicity was a key element in the uptake and elimination of orally administered fluid. These findings are likely to be of relevance when administering ORS in association with exercise.