Phorbol ester stimulation increases sickle erythrocyte adherence to endothelium: a novel pathway involving alpha 4 beta 1 integrin receptors on sickle reticulocytes and fibronectin.Blood. 1996 Dec 01; 88(11):4348-58.Blood
Sickle-cell adherence to endothelium has been hypothesized to initiate or contribute to microvascular occlusion and pain episodes. Adherence involves plasma proteins, endothelial-cell adhesion molecules, and receptors on sickle erythrocytes. It has previously been reported that sickle reticulocytes express the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin receptor and bind to cytokine-activated endothelium via an alpha 4 beta 1/vascular-cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) interaction. To elucidate other roles for alpha 4 beta 1 in sickle-cell adherence, the ability of activated alpha 4 beta 1 to promote adhesion to endothelium via a ligand different than VCAM-1 was explored. Adherence assays were performed under dynamic conditions at a shear stress of 1 dyne/cm2. Preincubation of sickle erythrocytes with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) increased adherence of sickle cells eightfold as compared with untreated sickle cells. Normal erythrocytes, whether treated with PDBu or not, did not adhere to the endothelium. Activating anti-beta 1 antibodies 4B4 and 8A2 also increased the adhesion of sickle, but not normal, red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium. Anti-alpha 4 antibodies HP1/2 and HP2/1, inhibitory antibody 4B5, or an RGD peptide inhibited sickle-cell adherence induced by PDBu. Additional studies were undertaken to examine if fibronectin, a ligand for activated alpha 4 beta 1, was involved in PDBu-induced sickle erythrocyte adherence. Adherence of PDBu-treated sickle cells was completely inhibited by the CS-1 peptide of fibronectin. Fibronectin was detected on the surface of washed endothelium using an antifibronectin antibody in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antifibronectin antibody pretreatment of endothelial cells inhibited PDBu-induced adherence by 79% +/- 17%. Incubation of sickle RBCs with exogenous fibronectin after PDBu treatment inhibited adherence 86% +/- 8%. Taken together, these data suggest that endothelial-bound fibronectin mediates adherence of PDBu-treated sickle cells. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine released in response to bacterial infection, viral infection, or other injurious agents, and known to activate integrins, also increased adherence of sickle erythrocytes to endothelial cells via fibronectin. This novel adherence pathway involving sickle-cell alpha 4 beta 1 activated by PDBu or IL-8 may therefore be relevant in vivo at vascular sites that produce IL-8 or similar agonists in response to vascular injury or immune activation. These observations describe ways in which inflammation and immune responses cause vasoocclusive complications in sickle-cell disease.