Comparison of plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles in hypertensive black versus white men. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents.Am J Cardiol 1996; 78(11):1236-41AJ
An abnormal plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile is an independent and strong predictor of mortality and morbidity from coronary artery disease (CAD). We report on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles with respect to race, age, obesity, blood pressure (BP), smoking, and drinking history in 1,292 male veterans with a diastolic BP of 95 to 109 mm Hg while off antihypertensive medications. Blacks had 24% (p <0.001) lower triglycerides than whites. In contrast, the following parameters were higher in blacks than in whites by the indicated percentages: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 16% (p <0.001); HDL2 cholesterol, 36% (p <0.001); apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, 8% (p <0.001); HDL/low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 18% (p = 0.018); HDL2/LDL, 36% (p = 0.031); HDL2/HDL3, 21% (p <0.001); and Apo A1/Apo B, 15% (p <0.001). Triglycerides were unchanged up to age 60, but were lower by 24% (p <0.001) in those aged > or = 70. Apo A1 levels were higher (p <0.001), whereas LDL cholesterol was lower (p <0.008) in moderate alcohol consumers versus abstainers. Triglycerides were higher (p <0.001), whereas HDL, HDL2 cholesterol, and Apo A1 were lower (p <0.001) with increasing obesity. Moderate alcohol consumption had a strong favorable effect on HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol among subjects of normal weight, but this effect was diminished in obese subjects. Total and LDL cholesterol were higher by 6.4% (p = 0.001) and 9.4% (p <0.003), respectively, whereas HDL cholesterol remained unchanged in those with diastolic BP of 105 to 109 mm Hg versus those with diastolic BP of 95 to 99 mm Hg. We conclude that hypertensive black men have lipid and lipoprotein profiles indicative of less CAD risk than white men. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption correlates with a favorable plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in normal, but not obese, men. Obesity is associated with an adverse plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile. Thus, race, alcohol intake, and obesity may be important modifiers of CAD in untreated hypertensive men.