[A 91-year-old man with a stroke, hypertension, and renal failure].No To Shinkei. 1996 Dec; 48(12):1155-64.NT
We report a 91-year-old man who had a stroke and died of renal failure. He had been treated for hypertension since 20 years before the onset of the present illness. In addition, he was operated on a gastric cancer 17 years previously. Otherwise he was doing well until May 29, 1991 (when he was 87-year-old) when he had sudden onset of dysarthria and right facial weakness. He was admitted to our hospital. On admission, general physical examination was unremarkable, and neurologic examination revealed a mentally sound man with slight dysarthria, right facial weakness, orolingual dyskinesia, and dysequilibrium in which he showed difficulty in tandem gait; however, no cerebellar ataxia was noted. A cranial CT scan revealed leukoaraiosis with multiple low density areas in the cerebral white matter. His BUN was 37 mg/dl and Cr 2.2 mg/dl. His neurologic symptoms cleared within the next few weeks and he was discharged with ticlopidine 100 mg q.d.. He had been doing well after the discharge except for gradual worsening of his renal function; his BUN was 65 mg/dl and Cr 3.27 mg/dl in April of 1994. On March 10, 1995, he fell down and hit his back; he became unable to walk because of pain, and he was admitted again on March 16, 1995. On admission, his blood pressure was 170/80 mmHg. There was an 1 + pitting pretibial edema; otherwise general physical examination was unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed an alert and oriented man, however, Hasegawa's dementia scale was 23/30. Higher cerebral functions as well as cranial nerves were intact. He showed some unsteadiness of gait, however, no motor weakness or ataxia was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished, but Chaddock sign was positive bilaterally. Vibration was diminished in the feet, however, pain and touch sensations were intact. Laboratory examination revealed a compression fracture of the twelfth thoracic vertebra. Blood count and chemistries were as follows; Hb 7.6 g/dl, Hct 23.3%, TP 6.0 g/dl, Alb 3.6 g/dl, BUN 87 mg/dl, Cr 4.53 mg/dl, T-Chol 174 mg/dl, HDL-Chol 49 mg/dl, Glu 156 mg/dl, Na 142 mEq/L, K 5.4 mEq/L, Cl 115 mEq/L. A urine specimen contained 1 + protein and 1 + glucose, and the sediments contained hyaline casts. A cranial CT scan was essentially same as that taken four years ago. His hospital course was complicated with pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and progressive renal failure. He was treated with intravenous fluid, chemotherapy, and other supportive measures, however, he expired from respiratory failure on April 30, 1995. He was discussed in a neurologic CPC, and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had Binswanger's disease in the brain, benign nephrosclerosis from arteriolosclerosis due to hypertension, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Opinions were divided regarding the question as to whether or not this patient had Binswanger's disease. Although his cranial CT scan revealed leukoaraiosis, his dementia and gait disturbance was only mild until his fall on March, 1995. Clinical features did not conform to those of Binswanger's disease. Postmortem examination of the right hemisphere revealed wide spread atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis. The kidney showed benign nephrosclerosis due to arteriolosclerosis. Sclerotic changes were also seen in the coronary arteries and the left middle cerebral artery with 70% stenosis. Myelin stain showed diffuse myelin pallor of the cerebral white matters with scattered small infarcts. Arterioles in the white matter showed arteriolosclerosis. Small infarcts were also seen in the putamen and in the thalamus. This patient appeared to have had circulatory disturbance of the white matter which is the basic abnormality causing Binswanger's disease. However, white matter changes in this patient were not quite severe enough to make a pathologic diagnosis of Binswanger's disease.