[Laryngeal and tracheal stenoses after intubation and/or tracheotomy. A review of 32 cases including 39 lesions and 33 operations (author's transl)].Acta Chir Belg. 1977 May-Jun; 76(3):381-5.AC
After reviewing their cases of scarr-stenosis of the upper airway between 1966 and 1976 the authors compare laryngeal to tracheal lesions: Laryngeal and laryngo-tracheal stenoses are long and difficult to repair and all too often yield poor results. These stenoses are usually due to technical faults (tracheotomy after prolonged intubation, forced intubation, tracheotomy through the first ring). They are most often avoidable. Pure tracheal stenoses nearly always result from ischemic destruction from the pressure in the balloons of the tubes and cannulae. They are difficult to prevent when resuscitation requires high pressure ventilation. Their treatment however is simple: resection and anastomosis yields excellent results though it should only be performed in pure scarr-tissue stenosis. Endoscopic dilatations may be a necessary preparation.