[Graft dysfunction, acute rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans in lung and heart-lung transplantation].Rev Mal Respir 1996; 13(5 Suppl):S31-40RM
Three complications which influence both survival and quality of life in transplanted patients will be the object of this chapter. Graft dysfunction: this is a severe re-implantation oedema leading to inefficiency of the graft as regards haemostasis whether or not associated with haemodynamic complications. The liberation of free radicals and/or cytokines induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the graft plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Acute rejection: the mechanism is complex leading to the intervention of an immune response stimulated by the detection of allo-antigens. The clinical picture is often non-specific. Treatment requires boluses of methyl prednisolone completed by decreasing dose of corticosteroid therapy orally. The syndrome of bronchiolitis obliterans: this is a progressive failure of the airways. This syndrome occurs in the long term in 50% of patients and presents with progressive dyspnoea associated with persistent or recurrent cough. The pathogenesis is brought about principally by a chronic rejection with a specific cytotoxic reaction of T lymphocytes against the airway epithelium which expresses Class II major histocompatibility antigens. Attempts at curative treatment can be extremely deceptive and leads to, at best, a slowing in decline of respiratory function.