Antioxidant status in patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy: impact of parenteral selenium supplementation.Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1997 Jan 17; 109(1):13-9.WK
Reactive oxygen species may be involved in a broad pattern of tissue injury in patients on regular hemodialysis therapy and, in fact, increasing evidence suggests that the antioxidative system is compromized in these patients. One factor contributing to this reduction of antioxidative capacity is selenium deficiency. The present investigation was undertaken to further define the extent and type of impairment of the oxygen radical scavenger system in chronic hemodialysis patients and to evaluate the impact of selenium supplementation. Twelve non-wasted patients (6 male, 6 female, mean age of 58 years) on chronic hemodialysis for a minimum of 5 months (mean 46 months) were supplemented intravenously with 400 mg selenium (as sodium selenite) thrice weekly after each hemodialysis session over 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before the start, at intervals of 2 weeks during, and 4 weeks after termination of supplementation. Concentrations were evaluated of selenium and alpha-tocopherol in plasma and erythrocytes, of retinol and ascorbic acid in plasma, of glutathione and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and, catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes. Lipid peroxidation endproducts were measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. In patients on hemodialysis multiple alterations of the antioxidative system were present and the concentrations of selenium in plasma, of glutathione and the activity of GSH-Px in erythrocytes were profoundly decreased (p < 0.001). Selenium supplementation improved the selenium status of the patients, as indicated by an increase in selenium concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes and erythrocyte GSH-Px activity. Improvement in antioxidative capacity was further documented by an increase in alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes. Plasma MDA showed a transient decrease after 6 weeks and increased activities of SOD and CAT were dampened. No effect was seen on plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol and retinol. We conclude that patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy manifest a profound depression in antioxidative potential and a selenium deficiency. Selenium supplementation improves the oxygen radical scavenger system and increases selenium concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes and the activity of selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase. Thus, selenium should also be considered for micronutrient supplementation in patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy.