Involvement of non-NMDA and NMDA receptors in glutamate-induced pressor or depressor responses of the pons and medulla.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1997 Jan; 24(1):46-56.CE
1. Fifty-five intact and six baroreceptor denervated and vagotomized cats of either sex were anaesthetized intraperitoneally with urethane (400 mg/kg) and alpha-chloralose (40 mg/kg). Responses of the systemic arterial pressure (SAP), mean SAP (MSAP) and sympathetic vertebral nerve (VNA) and renal nerve activities (RNA) were recorded. 2. In intact animals, monosodium L-glutamate (Glu, 0.1 mol/L, 50 nL) was microinjected into pressor areas of the locus coeruleus (LC), gigantocellular tegmental field (GTF), rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and dorsomedial medulla (DM), and the depressor areas of caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). The induced actions were compared before and after microinjection of either glutamate antagonists, glutamate diethylester (GDEE, 0.5 mol/L, 50-100 nL), a competitive AMPA receptor blocker, or 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5, 0.025 mol/L, 50-100 nL), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker. GDEE completely blocked the increases of SAP and VNA elicited from all pressor areas. D-AP5 only partially blocked the pressor but slightly blocked VNA and RNA responses from LC, GTF and DM, particularly those from RVLM. Neither GDEE nor D-AP5 blocked the depressor responses of SAP and two nerve activities elicited from CVLM. 3. In baroreceptor denervated animals, NMDA (2 mmol/L, 50-100 nL) and AMPA (0.2 mmol/L, 50-100 nL) were micro-injected into the same pressor areas of GTF, RVLM and DM and the depressor area of CVLM responsive to Glu activation (0.1 mol/L, 30 nL). In RVLM, DM and CVLM, the results of either NMDA or AMPA were similar to those induced by Glu. However, in GTF, microinjection of either NMDA or AMPA did not induce similar responses to Glu. This suggests that the nature of GTF may differ from RVLM and DM. 4. The above results suggest that the Glu-induced pressor responses from LC, GTF, DM and especially RVLM, are primarily mediated through AMPA receptors. The Glu-induced depressor responses from CVLM may not be predominantly mediated by either AMPA or NMDA receptors. 5. In both baroreceptor-intact and -denervated cats stimulation of the pressor areas often produced an increase of VNA and a decrease of RNA, while in the depressor CVLM decreased both VNA and RNA. The VNA, but not RNA were positively correlated with the pressor responses, while both VNA and RNA were positively correlated with the depressor responses. This may suggest that neurons of the sympathetic vertebral and renal nerves are topographically organized in the brain.