Late intraoperative clonidine administration prevents postanesthetic shivering after total intravenous or volatile anesthesia.Anesth Analg. 1997 Mar; 84(3):613-7.A&A
Postoperative administration of clonidine is an effective treatment for shivering. However, the ability of this drug to stop postanesthetic shivering when administered intraoperatively remains controversial. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of clonidine during isoflurane and propofol anesthesia remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the incidence of postanesthetic shivering in patients given clonidine during nitrous oxide/isoflurane or propofol anesthesia. Because clonidine is an analgesic, we also evaluated postoperative pain and analgesic requirements. We studied 60 patients undergoing elective ear or nose surgery. General anesthesia was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol, 1.5 micrograms/kg fentanyl, and 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in one group of patients; in the other, a continuous infusion of propofol (8 mg.kg-1.h-1) was administered (without nitrous oxide). Five minutes before tracheal extubation, patients in each group were randomly assigned to receive saline, placebo, or 3 micrograms/kg clonidine intravenously. Postanesthetic shivering was evaluated by a blind investigator. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Postoperative shivering was observed in 53% of the patients given isoflurane without clonidine and in 13% of the patients given propofol without clonidine. No patient given clonidine shivered. Clonidine administration significantly reduced postoperative pain. The incidence of postanesthetic shivering was significantly less after propofol anesthesia than after isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia. However, a late intraoperative bolus administration of 3 micrograms/kg clonidine prevents postoperative shivering in patients given either type of anesthesia.