Infection and replication of human cytomegalovirus in bone marrow stromal cells: effects on the production of IL-6, MIP-1alpha, and TGF-beta1.Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997 Mar; 19(5):471-80.BM
We have investigated the mechanisms by which hematopoiesis is suppressed in patients suffering from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Mixed populations of human bone marrow stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells were inoculated with the Towne strain of HCMV to determine whether these populations could be infected and support HCMV replication. We found that the Towne strain of HCMV was capable of infecting and replicating in a mixed population of bone marrow stromal cells. We observed no significant alterations in bone marrow stromal cell proliferation or the production of IL-6, GM-CSF, soluble c-kit ligand and TNF-alpha following HCMV replication in either stimulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or unstimulated conditions. In samples of culture supernatants from LPS-stimulated HCMV-infected stromal cells, significant elevations in MIP-1alpha were observed. TGF-beta1 levels on the other hand exhibited two patterns following HCMV exposure; either TGF-beta1 levels decreased regardless of LPS stimulation or there was no effect. In addition, we observed that exposure to the Towne strain of HCMV resulted in significant inhibition of both granulocytic and erythrocytic colony formation in methylcellulose progenitor assays. Thus, both the direct effect of HCMV on hematopoietic progenitors as well as altered cytokine production by bone marrow stromal cells (including MIP-1alpha and TGF-beta1, but not IL-6) could contribute to hematopoietic failure during HCMV infection.