Comparison of direct monocular endoscopic, two- and three-dimensional display systems on surgical task performance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1997 Feb; 22(1):65-7.CO
Surgeons performing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) traditionally rely on direct endoscopic viewing through a single monocular Hopkins rod lens telescope. While the majority of surgeons have found this satisfactory, most other endoscopic surgical specialties have moved to 2-D video endoscopy, where a monoscopic image is presented on a television monitor. This study set out to determine whether 2-D or 3-D display systems had any advantage over direct endoscopy in FESS. Ten otolaryngology trainees performed a series of standardized procedures on a FESS model using direct endoscopic vision, 2-D and 3-D. A performance score was obtained by dividing the execution time by the number of tasks achieved. There was a significant difference in both surgical and diagnostic task performance with 2-D (mean scores 56.8 and 41.1) performing better than direct endoscopy (mean scores 94.1 and 74.1) (P < 0.05). Tasks were also performed significantly better with 3-D compared with 2-D (P < 0.05).