Pharmacologic therapy for urticaria.Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1997 Jan-Feb; 25(1):36-51.AI
Treatment of chronic urticaria presents a challenge to both practitioner and patient. Traditional H1 antagonists with good efficacy but substantial side effects are being supplanted in many cases by nonsedating H1. Combinations of H1 and H2 antagonists offer improved results for selected patients. Second-line therapies include a wide range of drugs such as doxepin, dapsone, attenuated androgens, calcium antagonists, antimalarials, gold and methotrexate. The most effective and regularly used second-line agents are corticosteroids. These are best limited to short term crisis management, except in severe recalcitrant cases, and in patients with pressure urticaria or urticarial vasculitis. Further development and investigation of mast cell stabilisers and inhibitors of urticaria mediators other than histamine hold promise. A better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis remains the greatest hope of formulating rational and effective therapy.