Metabolic factors clustering, lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein E phenotypes in premature coronary artery disease in French Canadians.Can J Cardiol. 1997 Mar; 13(3):253-60.CJ
Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol abnormalities, diabetes, hypertension and smoking have all been identified as independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Clustering of multiple risk factors suggests a common metabolic link among high blood pressure, insulin resistance, plasma lipoprotein abnormalities and obesity. New guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias target patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD), and high risk patients with multiple risk factors and severe genetic lipoprotein disorders, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. To determine the prevalence of lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and metabolic disorders in premature CAD, 243 men and 61 women with premature CAD (occurring before age 60 years) and 203 age- and sex-matched controls (152 men, 61 women) were studied. After correcting for beta-blocker use (40% of men and 54% of women), hypertension and diabetes were seen more frequently in CAD patients than in controls. In men and women, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were significantly higher, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was lower, in CAD patients than in controls. By stratifying patients according to LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (5 or less, or greater than 5) and by triglyceride levels (less than 2.3 mmol/L, or 2.3 mmol/L or greater), significantly more men and women with CAD were found to have an elevated LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio and elevated triglycerides (13.8% versus 1.9%, men and women combined, CAD versus controls, P < 0.0001). A metabolic factor index was devised, assigning a score of 1 each for presence of hypertension, lipoprotein abnormalities, diabetes or fasting blood glucose above 7.0 mmol/L, and a body mass index of 27 or greater. The prevalence of a metabolic factor index of 3 or more was 29.2% in CAD men versus 6.7% in controls (P < 0.0001) and 38.3% in CAD women versus 11.7% in controls (P < 0.01). Familial hypercholesterolemia was seen in fewer than 5% of patients with premature CAD and type III dyslipoproteinemia in one of 343 CAD patients. The distribution of apolipoprotein E phenotypes was the same in CAD patients and controls. Multivariate analysis revealed that in men, HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) levels and smoking were the best predictors of risk. In men, plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides or body mass index did not enter the model at the P < 0.05 level. In women, low HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), the presence of diabetes, smoking and apolipoprotein B levels were all predictors of risk (P < 0.05). However, the clustering of risk factors may be the best predictor of risk. In this selected population, HDL and lipoprotein (a) are the best metabolic markers of premature CAD; metabolic factor clustering is common in patients with premature CAD.