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Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Nov; 31(5):386-406.CP

Abstract

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a very common disorder of upper gastro-intestinal motility, differing widely in severity and prognosis. Medical therapy of GORD has involved antacids, alginates, prokinetic agents and antisecretory compounds, primarily H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these compounds is important, to optimise the therapeutic benefit in each patient. GORD patients are often elderly and pharmacokinetics are move variable in this group. Furthermore, they often suffer from other diseases needing medical therapy and may need a combination of drugs to heal reflux oesophagitis and relieve reflux symptoms. The ideal therapy for GORD will have linear pharmacokinetics, a relatively long plasma half-life (t1/2), a duration of action allowing once daily administration, and a stable effect independent of interactions with food, antacids and other drugs. Over-the-counter antacids and alginates are widely used, buy may affect absorption of H2 receptor antagonists like cimetidine and ranitidine. Aluminium-containing antacids may, over time, cause toxicity in patients with renal insufficiency. In the treatment of GORD, cisapride presents important advantages over earlier prokinetic compounds, with a longer plasma t1/2, low penetration of the blood-brain barrier and fewer adverse effects. The group of H2 receptor antagonists is still the most frequently use therapy for GORD. Linear pharmacokinetics make dose adjustments easy and safe. In individual patients, suppression of gastric secretion is related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), but there is wide interindividual variation in the effect of the same oral dose. Only with frequent administration and high doses will acid suppression approximate that of proton pump inhibitors. Tolerance, with loss of effect over time, however, is most pronounced in this situation. H2 receptor antagonists seem well suited for on-demand treatment of reflux symptoms, due to the rapid onset of effect and a decrease likelihood of the development of tolerance. Effervescent formulations provide more rapid absorption and almost immediate clinical effect. Cimetidine, however, causes interference with the metabolism of several other drugs in common use. In elderly patients elimination is delayed and in patients with renal insufficiency, dose reductions of all H2 receptor antagonists are recommended. The most effective medical therapy for any severity of GORD, particularly in severe oesophagitis, are the proton pump inhibitors. The substituted benzimidazoles (omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole), are prodrugs which once trapped and activated in the acid milieu of the gastric glands potently suppress gastric secretion of acid and pepsin. Their long duration of action, more related to the slow turnover of parietal cell H(+)-K+ ATPase molecules, allows once daily administration in most patients. Interindividual variation in bioavailability sometimes calls for higher doses or twice daily administration. Acid suppression is closely related to the AUC. Omeprazole is prone to interaction with the metabolism of other drugs, some of which may e be clinically important. Lansoprazole seems to have an earlier onset of action than omeprazole, ascribed to higher bioavailability during the first days of treatment. Proton pump inhibitors have a slow onset of action, which makes them unsuited for on-demand therapy. Clinical practice in GORD calls for the use of not one but several substances, according to the severity and symptom pattern of the patient. Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of GORD is a question of selecting the most suitable substances and administration schemes within each group. Cisapride is superior to other prokinetics in terms of longer plasma t1/2 and less toxicity. Amongst H2 receptor antagonists, the more long-acting compounds, ranitidine and famotidine, will improve acidity control througho

Authors+Show Affiliations

Medical Department A, Haukeland Hospital, University of Bergen, Norway.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9118586

Citation

Hatlebakk, J G., and A Berstad. "Pharmacokinetic Optimisation in the Treatment of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease." Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 31, no. 5, 1996, pp. 386-406.
Hatlebakk JG, Berstad A. Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996;31(5):386-406.
Hatlebakk, J. G., & Berstad, A. (1996). Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 31(5), 386-406.
Hatlebakk JG, Berstad A. Pharmacokinetic Optimisation in the Treatment of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996;31(5):386-406. PubMed PMID: 9118586.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. AU - Hatlebakk,J G, AU - Berstad,A, PY - 1996/11/1/pubmed PY - 1996/11/1/medline PY - 1996/11/1/entrez SP - 386 EP - 406 JF - Clinical pharmacokinetics JO - Clin Pharmacokinet VL - 31 IS - 5 N2 - Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a very common disorder of upper gastro-intestinal motility, differing widely in severity and prognosis. Medical therapy of GORD has involved antacids, alginates, prokinetic agents and antisecretory compounds, primarily H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these compounds is important, to optimise the therapeutic benefit in each patient. GORD patients are often elderly and pharmacokinetics are move variable in this group. Furthermore, they often suffer from other diseases needing medical therapy and may need a combination of drugs to heal reflux oesophagitis and relieve reflux symptoms. The ideal therapy for GORD will have linear pharmacokinetics, a relatively long plasma half-life (t1/2), a duration of action allowing once daily administration, and a stable effect independent of interactions with food, antacids and other drugs. Over-the-counter antacids and alginates are widely used, buy may affect absorption of H2 receptor antagonists like cimetidine and ranitidine. Aluminium-containing antacids may, over time, cause toxicity in patients with renal insufficiency. In the treatment of GORD, cisapride presents important advantages over earlier prokinetic compounds, with a longer plasma t1/2, low penetration of the blood-brain barrier and fewer adverse effects. The group of H2 receptor antagonists is still the most frequently use therapy for GORD. Linear pharmacokinetics make dose adjustments easy and safe. In individual patients, suppression of gastric secretion is related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), but there is wide interindividual variation in the effect of the same oral dose. Only with frequent administration and high doses will acid suppression approximate that of proton pump inhibitors. Tolerance, with loss of effect over time, however, is most pronounced in this situation. H2 receptor antagonists seem well suited for on-demand treatment of reflux symptoms, due to the rapid onset of effect and a decrease likelihood of the development of tolerance. Effervescent formulations provide more rapid absorption and almost immediate clinical effect. Cimetidine, however, causes interference with the metabolism of several other drugs in common use. In elderly patients elimination is delayed and in patients with renal insufficiency, dose reductions of all H2 receptor antagonists are recommended. The most effective medical therapy for any severity of GORD, particularly in severe oesophagitis, are the proton pump inhibitors. The substituted benzimidazoles (omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole), are prodrugs which once trapped and activated in the acid milieu of the gastric glands potently suppress gastric secretion of acid and pepsin. Their long duration of action, more related to the slow turnover of parietal cell H(+)-K+ ATPase molecules, allows once daily administration in most patients. Interindividual variation in bioavailability sometimes calls for higher doses or twice daily administration. Acid suppression is closely related to the AUC. Omeprazole is prone to interaction with the metabolism of other drugs, some of which may e be clinically important. Lansoprazole seems to have an earlier onset of action than omeprazole, ascribed to higher bioavailability during the first days of treatment. Proton pump inhibitors have a slow onset of action, which makes them unsuited for on-demand therapy. Clinical practice in GORD calls for the use of not one but several substances, according to the severity and symptom pattern of the patient. Pharmacokinetic optimisation in the treatment of GORD is a question of selecting the most suitable substances and administration schemes within each group. Cisapride is superior to other prokinetics in terms of longer plasma t1/2 and less toxicity. Amongst H2 receptor antagonists, the more long-acting compounds, ranitidine and famotidine, will improve acidity control througho SN - 0312-5963 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9118586/Pharmacokinetic_optimisation_in_the_treatment_of_gastro_oesophageal_reflux_disease_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003088-199631050-00005 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -