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Sexual transmission of hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24(3):121-6ST

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic and poses a grave public health problem in Africa where it is mainly transmitted from mother to baby or during childhood. Sexual transmission has also been suggested to play a role in East Africa, but this has never been properly demonstrated. Additional preventive strategies may be proposed if sexual transmission of HBV occurred in this region where HIV and other STDs are highly prevalent.

GOALS

To determine the prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV)and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in routine blood samples taken from three populations in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to use the data collected to look at the association between hepatitis B and other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

STUDY DESIGN

Routine blood samples were collected from 1,025 patients attending a clinic for STDs, 253 voluntary blood donors from secondary schools, and 952 blood donors who gave blood in a hospital specifically for a relative who needed a blood transfusion. All samples were tested for HIV by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for syphilis using the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. Two markers for HBV were examined by the double ELISA method, the presence of the anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).

RESULTS

There were high prevalences of HBV, syphilis, and HIV in relative donors and STD patients. Although HBV markers were more prevalent in men of increasing ages, syphilis and HIV markers were more prevalent in young women. Evidence of past infection with HBV (presence of anti-HBc) was associated with serologic markers of recent treponemal infection (both TPHA and RPR positive) in both sexes (men odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, P < 0.011; women OR = 2.34, P < 0.02) and with HIV in men (OR = 1.93, P < 0.003). Current infection with HBV (presence of HBsAg) was associated with recent syphilis in men (OR = 2.13, P < 0.006). In STD patients, current infection with HBV was associated with Trichomonas vaginalis in women (OR = 3.57, P < 0.002) and recent syphilis in men (OR = 3.46, P < 0.001). There was no further association between HBV markers and any other STD pathogen or any particular STD syndrome, nor was there any association between current HBV infection and HIV in both sexes. The population attributable fraction for sexual acquisition of hepatitis B is estimated at 7.2% in men and 3.0% in women, based on the association between hepatitis B and syphilis.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that sexual acquisition of hepatitis B occurs at low levels in Mwanza, and that HBV can be prevented through enhancement of the current HIV/STD control activities, in addition to improved vaccination strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

LIVOS Project, Mwanza, Tanzania.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9132977

Citation

Jacobs, B, et al. "Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania." Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 24, no. 3, 1997, pp. 121-6.
Jacobs B, Mayaud P, Changalucha J, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sex Transm Dis. 1997;24(3):121-6.
Jacobs, B., Mayaud, P., Changalucha, J., Todd, J., Ka-Gina, G., Grosskurth, H., & Berege, Z. A. (1997). Sexual transmission of hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 24(3), pp. 121-6.
Jacobs B, et al. Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sex Transm Dis. 1997;24(3):121-6. PubMed PMID: 9132977.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sexual transmission of hepatitis B in Mwanza, Tanzania. AU - Jacobs,B, AU - Mayaud,P, AU - Changalucha,J, AU - Todd,J, AU - Ka-Gina,G, AU - Grosskurth,H, AU - Berege,Z A, PY - 1997/3/1/pubmed PY - 1997/3/1/medline PY - 1997/3/1/entrez KW - Africa KW - Africa South Of The Sahara KW - Behavior KW - Biology KW - Blood Donors KW - Blood Supply KW - Developing Countries KW - Diseases KW - Eastern Africa KW - English Speaking Africa KW - Equipment And Supplies KW - Examinations And Diagnoses KW - Hepatitis--transmission KW - Infections KW - Measurement KW - Prevalence KW - Reproductive Tract Infections KW - Research Methodology KW - Risk Factors KW - Screening KW - Sex Behavior KW - Sexually Transmitted Diseases KW - Syphilis KW - Tanzania KW - Viral Diseases SP - 121 EP - 6 JF - Sexually transmitted diseases JO - Sex Transm Dis VL - 24 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic and poses a grave public health problem in Africa where it is mainly transmitted from mother to baby or during childhood. Sexual transmission has also been suggested to play a role in East Africa, but this has never been properly demonstrated. Additional preventive strategies may be proposed if sexual transmission of HBV occurred in this region where HIV and other STDs are highly prevalent. GOALS: To determine the prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV)and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in routine blood samples taken from three populations in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to use the data collected to look at the association between hepatitis B and other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). STUDY DESIGN: Routine blood samples were collected from 1,025 patients attending a clinic for STDs, 253 voluntary blood donors from secondary schools, and 952 blood donors who gave blood in a hospital specifically for a relative who needed a blood transfusion. All samples were tested for HIV by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for syphilis using the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. Two markers for HBV were examined by the double ELISA method, the presence of the anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). RESULTS: There were high prevalences of HBV, syphilis, and HIV in relative donors and STD patients. Although HBV markers were more prevalent in men of increasing ages, syphilis and HIV markers were more prevalent in young women. Evidence of past infection with HBV (presence of anti-HBc) was associated with serologic markers of recent treponemal infection (both TPHA and RPR positive) in both sexes (men odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, P < 0.011; women OR = 2.34, P < 0.02) and with HIV in men (OR = 1.93, P < 0.003). Current infection with HBV (presence of HBsAg) was associated with recent syphilis in men (OR = 2.13, P < 0.006). In STD patients, current infection with HBV was associated with Trichomonas vaginalis in women (OR = 3.57, P < 0.002) and recent syphilis in men (OR = 3.46, P < 0.001). There was no further association between HBV markers and any other STD pathogen or any particular STD syndrome, nor was there any association between current HBV infection and HIV in both sexes. The population attributable fraction for sexual acquisition of hepatitis B is estimated at 7.2% in men and 3.0% in women, based on the association between hepatitis B and syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that sexual acquisition of hepatitis B occurs at low levels in Mwanza, and that HBV can be prevented through enhancement of the current HIV/STD control activities, in addition to improved vaccination strategies. SN - 0148-5717 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9132977/Sexual_transmission_of_hepatitis_B_in_Mwanza_Tanzania_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-199703000-00001 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -