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Association of smoking, body mass, and physical activity with risk of prostate cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States).

Abstract

Smoking, obesity, alcohol, and physical activity can modulate the endocrine system, and therefore have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. At baseline in 1982, 80 percent (n = 3,673) of the noninstitutionalized persons age 65+ in two rural Iowa (United States) counties were enrolled into the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study. Follow-up for mortality was complete through 1993, and cancer experience was determined by linkage to the State Health Registry of Iowa cancer database for the years 1973-93. We analyzed data on 1,050 men aged 65 to 101 years (mean age 73.5) with a full interview in 1982 and with no documented cancer in the 10 years prior to baseline. Through 1993 (8,474 person-years of follow-up), there were 71 incident cases of prostate cancer. In a multivariate model, age, cigarette smoking (relative risk [RR] = 2.9 for currently smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day compared with never smoking; P trend = 0.009), greater body mass index (BMI) (wt/ht2) (RR = 1.7 for BMI > 27.8 kg/m2 compared with < 23.6; P trend = 0.1), and greater level of physical activity (RR = 1.9 for high activity level cf inactive; P trend = 0.05) were independent predictors of prostate cancer, and these associations were stronger for regional or disseminated disease at diagnosis. Percent change in BMI from age 50 to baseline was associated positively with risk (P trend = 0.01), and this association appeared to be stronger in heavier men. There were no data on diet. These findings suggest that smoking, overweight, and weight gain in later life are risk factors for prostate cancer and support a hormonal etiology; the positive association for physical activity confirms some previous reports, but remains without a credible biologic mechanism.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242-1008, USA.

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    Cancer causes & control : CCC 8:2 1997 Mar pg 229-38

    MeSH

    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Body Mass Index
    Cohort Studies
    Exercise
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Iowa
    Life Style
    Male
    Multivariate Analysis
    Obesity
    Population Surveillance
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Registries
    Risk Factors
    Rural Health
    Rural Population
    Smoking
    Survival Rate
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9134247

    Citation

    Cerhan, J R., et al. "Association of Smoking, Body Mass, and Physical Activity With Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States)." Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, vol. 8, no. 2, 1997, pp. 229-38.
    Cerhan JR, Torner JC, Lynch CF, et al. Association of smoking, body mass, and physical activity with risk of prostate cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(2):229-38.
    Cerhan, J. R., Torner, J. C., Lynch, C. F., Rubenstein, L. M., Lemke, J. H., Cohen, M. B., ... Wallace, R. B. (1997). Association of smoking, body mass, and physical activity with risk of prostate cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, 8(2), pp. 229-38.
    Cerhan JR, et al. Association of Smoking, Body Mass, and Physical Activity With Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(2):229-38. PubMed PMID: 9134247.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Association of smoking, body mass, and physical activity with risk of prostate cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States). AU - Cerhan,J R, AU - Torner,J C, AU - Lynch,C F, AU - Rubenstein,L M, AU - Lemke,J H, AU - Cohen,M B, AU - Lubaroff,D M, AU - Wallace,R B, PY - 1997/3/1/pubmed PY - 1997/3/1/medline PY - 1997/3/1/entrez SP - 229 EP - 38 JF - Cancer causes & control : CCC JO - Cancer Causes Control VL - 8 IS - 2 N2 - Smoking, obesity, alcohol, and physical activity can modulate the endocrine system, and therefore have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. At baseline in 1982, 80 percent (n = 3,673) of the noninstitutionalized persons age 65+ in two rural Iowa (United States) counties were enrolled into the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study. Follow-up for mortality was complete through 1993, and cancer experience was determined by linkage to the State Health Registry of Iowa cancer database for the years 1973-93. We analyzed data on 1,050 men aged 65 to 101 years (mean age 73.5) with a full interview in 1982 and with no documented cancer in the 10 years prior to baseline. Through 1993 (8,474 person-years of follow-up), there were 71 incident cases of prostate cancer. In a multivariate model, age, cigarette smoking (relative risk [RR] = 2.9 for currently smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day compared with never smoking; P trend = 0.009), greater body mass index (BMI) (wt/ht2) (RR = 1.7 for BMI > 27.8 kg/m2 compared with < 23.6; P trend = 0.1), and greater level of physical activity (RR = 1.9 for high activity level cf inactive; P trend = 0.05) were independent predictors of prostate cancer, and these associations were stronger for regional or disseminated disease at diagnosis. Percent change in BMI from age 50 to baseline was associated positively with risk (P trend = 0.01), and this association appeared to be stronger in heavier men. There were no data on diet. These findings suggest that smoking, overweight, and weight gain in later life are risk factors for prostate cancer and support a hormonal etiology; the positive association for physical activity confirms some previous reports, but remains without a credible biologic mechanism. SN - 0957-5243 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9134247/Association_of_smoking_body_mass_and_physical_activity_with_risk_of_prostate_cancer_in_the_Iowa_65+_Rural_Health_Study__United_States__ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=9134247.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -