Screening of European coffee final products for occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA).Food Addit Contam. 1997 Apr; 14(3):211-6.FA
Samples (633) of final coffee products were drawn from the markets of different European countries relative to the market share of each product type and brand. These samples were analysed in a cooperative action with nine different laboratories. With low limits of detection (mean detection limit approximately 0.5 ng/g) no OTA was found in over half of the samples (334 negatives). In the remaining samples occurrence of OTA at a rather low level was seen. Only four samples (all instants) exceeded a level of 10 ng/g, whereas for both instants, and roast and grounds (R & G), over three-quarters of the samples were in the range from nondetectable to 1 ng/g. The overall mean for all R & Gs was 0.8 ng/g and for all instant 1.3 ng/g (for samples in which no OTA was detected, half of the detection limit was included in this calculation). In the brewing methods frequently used in Europe the OTA is essentially fully extracted. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day (approximately 24 g R & G or approximately 8 g instant coffee) contributes on average 19 or 10 ng/day respectively. Four cups/day is above the per caput consumption level in most European contries. Compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) recently set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives at 100 ng/kg bodyweight/week, consumption of 28 cups/week contributes up to 2% to the PTWI.