Stimulation by extracellular ATP and UTP of the stress-activated protein kinase cascade in rat renal mesangial cells.Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar; 120(5):807-12.BJ
1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) have been shown to activate a nucleotide receptor (P2U receptor) in rat mesangial cells that mediates phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipases C and D, respectively. This is followed by an increased activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and cell proliferation. Here we show that ATP and UTP potently stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase pathway and phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun. 2. Both nucleotides stimulated a rapid (within 5 min) and concentration-dependent activation of stress-activated protein kinases as measured by the phosphorylation of c-Jun in a solid phase kinase assay. 3. When added at 100 microM the rank order of potency of a series of nucleotide analogues for stimulation of c-Jun phosphorylation was UTP > ATP = UDP = ATP gamma S > 2-methylthio-ATP > beta gamma-imido-ATP = ADP > AMP = UMP = adenosine = uridine. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase activity by ATP and UTP was dose-dependently attenuated by suramin. 4. Down-regulation of protein kinase C-alpha, -delta and -epsilon isoenzymes by 24 h treatment of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not inhibit ATP- and UTP-induced activation of c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, CGP 41251 and Ro 31-8220, did not inhibit nucleotide-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, suggesting that protein kinase C is not involved in ATP- and UTP-triggered stress-activated protein kinase activation. 5. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, strongly attenuated ATP- and UTP-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine completely blocked the activation of stress-activated protein kinase in response to extracellular nucleotide stimulation. 6. In summary, these results suggest that ATP and UTP trigger the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase module in mesangial cells by a pathway independent of protein kinase C but requiring a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein and tyrosine kinase activation.