Effect of acetaldehyde on Sp1 binding and activation of the mouse alpha 2(I) collagen promoter.Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 May 01; 341(1):140-52.AB
Acetaldehyde activates the mouse alpha 2(I) collagen promoter and this effect is mediated in part by increased binding of nuclear factor I (NF-I). Additional mechanisms may exist since deletions in the promoter upstream to the NF-I binding site prevented enhancement by acetaldehyde. Three adjacent areas of binding by nuclear proteins from activated hepatic stellate cells were identified at -568 to -554 (region 1), -542 to -518 (region 2), and -473 to -453 (region 3) of the promoter using DNase I protection analyses. Multiple DNA-protein complexes were formed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays with oligonucleotide probes specifying the three regions. Sp1 and NF-1 bound to all three regions, while Sp3 bound to region 2. Acetaldehyde decreased nuclear protein binding to all three regions. Mutations of regions 1, 2, and 3 reduced basal activity of the promoter and inhibited acetaldehyde stimulation in transfected stellate cells. Acetaldehyde inhibited the stimulatory effect of the Sp1 vector pPacSp1 on the promoter in transfected Drosophila cells. In conclusion, three regions of Sp1 binding were identified and are required for optimal activity of the alpha 2(I) collagen promoter. Sp1 is required for basal activity of the alpha 2(I) collagen promoter; however, the enhancing effect of acetaldehyde on the promoter is not mediated by Sp1.