Differences in the phenotype between children with familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 and familial hypercholesterolemia.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 May; 17(5):826-33.AT
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is a dominantly inherited genetic disorder resulting from a point mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) B gene and is associated with significantly elevated plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels. Despite numerous descriptions outlining the phenotype of children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), no study has described the biochemical and clinical phenotype in a cohort of children with FDB. The phenotypes of FH and FDB, therefore, have not been compared in children. We have studied a cohort of 38 Dutch children (all <20 years old) with FDB from 21 different families. Lipid and lipoprotein levels and the clinical phenotype were compared with 97 age-matched FH heterozygotes, as defined by molecular analysis, and with age-matched non-FDB, non-FH control subjects. Female FDB carriers (n=23) had significantly lower total cholesterol (P<.001), LDL cholesterol (P=.001), total cholesterol:HDL ratio (P<.001), and apoB levels (P=.001) than age-matched female FH heterozygotes (n=50). Similar results were noted in male FDB carriers (n=15) compared with male FH heterozygotes (n=47; P=.005, P=.007, P=.014, and P=.074, respectively). Within the FDB group, female FDB heterozygotes had higher LDL cholesterol (P=.038) and a trend to higher total cholesterol levels (P=.165) than age-matched males. Both male and female FDB carriers had significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol:HDL ratio than age- and sex-matched control subjects, which was evident even in children <10 years of age, providing additional evidence that this mutation is penetrant in early life. These results provide evidence for a milder biochemical phenotype in children with FDB than in children with FH. The phenotype observed is intermediate between that of control subjects and FH heterozygotes matched for age and sex. As the incidence of coronary artery disease is related to both the extent and duration of cholesterol elevation, our findings might explain in part the lower incidence of clinical atherosclerosis seen in adults with this condition than in adults with FH.