Embolization of dural cavernous fistulas via superior ophthalmic vein approach.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997 May; 18(5):921-8.AA
To present the results of our treatment of dural cavernous sinus fistulas with surgical exposure of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), retrograde venous catheterization, and coil embolization of the cavernous sinus.
Twelve patients with dural cavernous sinus fistulas were treated via a retrograde transvenous SOV approach in our hospital during a 3-year period. All patients had been referred by ophthalmologists because of secondary glaucoma and decreased visual acuity. Angiography showed preferential venous drainage of the dural cavernous sinus fistulas to an enlarged ipsilateral SOV. A total of 13 SOV exposures were performed, one patient with bilateral fistulas required bilateral treatment. The vein was surgically exposed by an ophthalmologist and then catheterized. Platinum coils were delivered through a microcatheter at the fistula site and into the root of the SOV, until there was complete angiographic closure.
Catheterization and embolization were successful in 12 of the 13 patients, with complete angiographic occlusion of the fistula. Two patients with bilateral fistulas had transient worsening of symptoms on the contralateral side. Three patients required follow-up angiography. No early complications occurred, and late complications were minor in two cases. All patients except one with long-standing symptoms recovered premorbid visual acuity. At follow-up, 11 (92%) of the 12 embolized fistulas remained occluded.
Retrograde catheterization of the SOV and embolization of the cavernous sinus with coils is a direct, safe, and efficient way to occlude dural cavernous sinus fistulas.