Middle- and working-class black and white children's speech during a picture-labeling task.J Genet Psychol. 1997 Jun; 158(2):226-40.JG
The speech of 9 middle-class Black, 9 middle-class White, 9 working-class Black, and 9 working-class White preschool children was examined during a picture labeling task. The groups were found to be similar in levels and forms of labeling. There were class differences and race differences among the children: Middle-class and White children labeled more and provided more information about objects. Existing data from the children's parents indicate that there are many ways in which the groups of children resemble and differ from their parents in their labeling. The present findings demonstrate the influence of social context in shaping children's labeling and the simultaneous influence of the children's independent structuring of their labeling.