Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997 Jun; 11(2):385-409.ID

Abstract

The recent resurgence of TB together with the ongoing HIV epidemic has resulted in a larger number of infectious TB patients being admitted to US health care facilities. These patients have become a source for both nosocomial (patient-to-patient) and occupational (patient-to-health care worker) M. tuberculosis transmission. Infectious MDR-TB patients serve as even greater potential infectious sources because they often remain AFB smear and culture positive for months to years. The keys to the prevention of nosocomial and occupational transmission of M. tuberculosis is conducting a risk assessment for each area of the facility and instituting appropriate control measures, having a high index of suspicion by clinicians for infectious TB in those who present with consistent signs and symptoms, rapid triage of such patients to isolation areas and their appropriate clinical work-up, and the institution of effective antituberculous therapy. Infection control personnel should ensure that infectious TB patients are isolated in appropriate isolation rooms (i.e., negative pressure, greater than or equal to 6 ACH, and direct external exhaust of the room air). Health care workers with infectious TB patient contact should be instructed in the epidemiology of M. tuberculosis transmission, the role of respirators in protecting the health care worker from airborne inoculation, and the importance of periodic health care worker TST. The nosocomial TB outbreaks in the 1980s and 1990s document that M. tuberculosis can be transmitted to both patients and health care workers in US health care facilities when appropriate infection control measures are not fully implemented. Follow-up studies at some of these institutions, however, document that when infection control measures similar to the 1990 or 1994 CDC TB Guidelines are fully implemented, M. tuberculosis transmission to both patients and health care workers can be reduced or eliminated. Protection of both patients and health care workers from M. tuberculosis infection is dependent on an understanding and full implementation of the 1994 CDC TB Guidelines.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Investigation and Prevention Branch, Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9187953

Citation

Cookson, S T., and W R. Jarvis. "Prevention of Nosocomial Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis." Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 11, no. 2, 1997, pp. 385-409.
Cookson ST, Jarvis WR. Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997;11(2):385-409.
Cookson, S. T., & Jarvis, W. R. (1997). Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 11(2), 385-409.
Cookson ST, Jarvis WR. Prevention of Nosocomial Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997;11(2):385-409. PubMed PMID: 9187953.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Cookson,S T, AU - Jarvis,W R, PY - 1997/6/1/pubmed PY - 1997/6/1/medline PY - 1997/6/1/entrez SP - 385 EP - 409 JF - Infectious disease clinics of North America JO - Infect Dis Clin North Am VL - 11 IS - 2 N2 - The recent resurgence of TB together with the ongoing HIV epidemic has resulted in a larger number of infectious TB patients being admitted to US health care facilities. These patients have become a source for both nosocomial (patient-to-patient) and occupational (patient-to-health care worker) M. tuberculosis transmission. Infectious MDR-TB patients serve as even greater potential infectious sources because they often remain AFB smear and culture positive for months to years. The keys to the prevention of nosocomial and occupational transmission of M. tuberculosis is conducting a risk assessment for each area of the facility and instituting appropriate control measures, having a high index of suspicion by clinicians for infectious TB in those who present with consistent signs and symptoms, rapid triage of such patients to isolation areas and their appropriate clinical work-up, and the institution of effective antituberculous therapy. Infection control personnel should ensure that infectious TB patients are isolated in appropriate isolation rooms (i.e., negative pressure, greater than or equal to 6 ACH, and direct external exhaust of the room air). Health care workers with infectious TB patient contact should be instructed in the epidemiology of M. tuberculosis transmission, the role of respirators in protecting the health care worker from airborne inoculation, and the importance of periodic health care worker TST. The nosocomial TB outbreaks in the 1980s and 1990s document that M. tuberculosis can be transmitted to both patients and health care workers in US health care facilities when appropriate infection control measures are not fully implemented. Follow-up studies at some of these institutions, however, document that when infection control measures similar to the 1990 or 1994 CDC TB Guidelines are fully implemented, M. tuberculosis transmission to both patients and health care workers can be reduced or eliminated. Protection of both patients and health care workers from M. tuberculosis infection is dependent on an understanding and full implementation of the 1994 CDC TB Guidelines. SN - 0891-5520 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9187953/Prevention_of_nosocomial_transmission_of_Mycobacterium_tuberculosis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891-5520(05)70362-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -