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Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold.
JAMA. 1997 Jun 25; 277(24):1940-4.JAMA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the hypothesis that diverse ties to friends, family, work, and community are associated with increased host resistance to infection.

DESIGN

After reporting the extent of participation in 12 types of social ties (eg, spouse, parent, friend, workmate, member of social group), subjects were given nasal drops containing 1 of 2 rhinoviruses and monitored for the development of a common cold.

SETTING

Quarantine.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 276 healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, neither seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus nor pregnant.

OUTCOME MEASURES

Colds (illness in the presence of a verified infection), mucus production, mucociliary clearance function, and amount of viral replication.

RESULTS

In response to both viruses, those with more types of social ties were less susceptible to common colds, produced less mucus, were more effective in ciliary clearance of their nasal passages, and shed less virus. These relationships were unaltered by statistical controls for prechallenge virus-specific antibody, virus type, age, sex, season, body mass index, education, and race. Susceptibility to colds decreased in a dose-response manner with increased diversity of the social network. There was an adjusted relative risk of 4.2 comparing persons with fewest (1 to 3) to those with most (6 or more) types of social ties. Although smoking, poor sleep quality, alcohol abstinence, low dietary intake of vitamin C, elevated catecholamine levels, and being introverted were all associated with greater susceptibility to colds, they could only partially account for the relation between social network diversity and incidence of colds.

CONCLUSIONS

More diverse social networks were associated with greater resistance to upper respiratory illness.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. SCOHEN@CMU.EDUNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9200634

Citation

Cohen, S, et al. "Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold." JAMA, vol. 277, no. 24, 1997, pp. 1940-4.
Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, et al. Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. JAMA. 1997;277(24):1940-4.
Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Skoner, D. P., Rabin, B. S., & Gwaltney, J. M. (1997). Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. JAMA, 277(24), 1940-4.
Cohen S, et al. Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. JAMA. 1997 Jun 25;277(24):1940-4. PubMed PMID: 9200634.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. AU - Cohen,S, AU - Doyle,W J, AU - Skoner,D P, AU - Rabin,B S, AU - Gwaltney,J M,Jr PY - 1997/6/25/pubmed PY - 2001/3/28/medline PY - 1997/6/25/entrez SP - 1940 EP - 4 JF - JAMA JO - JAMA VL - 277 IS - 24 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that diverse ties to friends, family, work, and community are associated with increased host resistance to infection. DESIGN: After reporting the extent of participation in 12 types of social ties (eg, spouse, parent, friend, workmate, member of social group), subjects were given nasal drops containing 1 of 2 rhinoviruses and monitored for the development of a common cold. SETTING: Quarantine. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 276 healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, neither seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus nor pregnant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Colds (illness in the presence of a verified infection), mucus production, mucociliary clearance function, and amount of viral replication. RESULTS: In response to both viruses, those with more types of social ties were less susceptible to common colds, produced less mucus, were more effective in ciliary clearance of their nasal passages, and shed less virus. These relationships were unaltered by statistical controls for prechallenge virus-specific antibody, virus type, age, sex, season, body mass index, education, and race. Susceptibility to colds decreased in a dose-response manner with increased diversity of the social network. There was an adjusted relative risk of 4.2 comparing persons with fewest (1 to 3) to those with most (6 or more) types of social ties. Although smoking, poor sleep quality, alcohol abstinence, low dietary intake of vitamin C, elevated catecholamine levels, and being introverted were all associated with greater susceptibility to colds, they could only partially account for the relation between social network diversity and incidence of colds. CONCLUSIONS: More diverse social networks were associated with greater resistance to upper respiratory illness. SN - 0098-7484 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9200634/Social_ties_and_susceptibility_to_the_common_cold_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/vol/277/pg/1940 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -