A prospective study of alcohol, smoking, caffeine, and the risk of duodenal ulcer in men.
The associations between smoking, caffeine, and alcohol intake and the risk of duodenal ulcer have rarely been investigated prospectively. We examined these associations in a prospective cohort of 47,806 men, 40-75 years of age, using a mailed baseline questionnaire in 1986, with follow-up every 2 years through 1992. During 6 years of follow-up, we documented 138 newly diagnosed cases of duodenal ulcer. After adjustment for age, energy-adjusted dietary fiber, body mass index, and use of aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, current smoking was not associated with a substantial risk of duodenal ulcer [relative risk (RR) = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-1.89]. Overall, past smokers were not at increased risk compared with never-smokers (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.69-1.42). Adjusting for other risk factors, alcohol intake (comparing those who drink > 30 gm of alcohol per day to nondrinkers) was not associated with higher risk of duodenal ulcer (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.42-1.29). We observed little association between caffeine, caffeine-containing beverages, and decaffeinated coffee and the risk of duodenal ulcer. These results indicate that smoking is not associated with a substantial increase in risk of duodenal ulcer, nor is high intake of alcohol and caffeine.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA., , , ,
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.