Craniotubular dysplasia with severe postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation, ectodermal dysplasia, and loose skin: Lenz-Majewski-like syndrome.Am J Med Genet. 1997 Jul 11; 71(1):87-92.AJ
The heterogeneous group of craniotubular dysplasias is characterized by modeling errors of the craniofacial and tubular bones. Some conditions in this category cause not only skeletal abnormalities but also a variety of mesoectodermal dysplasias, as exemplified in Lenz-Majewski syndrome (MIM 151050), which comprises craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, proximal symphalangism, enamel hypoplasia, and loose skin. We report on a boy with a hitherto unknown multisystem disorder, including skeletal changes that were regarded as a form of craniotubular dysplasia. The patient had a large head, exophthalmos, a broad nasal root, anteverted nostrils, large auricles, thick lips, micrognathia, severe postnatal growth retardation with emaciation, severe mental retardation, sparse hair growth, enamel hypoplasia, and thin, loose skin with hyperlaxity. Skeletal changes consisted of thickened calvaria, sclerosis of the skull base and facial bones, thick ribs, and metaphyseal undermodeling of the tubular bones. In addition, generalized osteopenia was evident. The present disorder overlaps phenotypically with Lenz-Majewski syndrome; nevertheless, the absence of diaphyseal hyperostosis and proximal symphalangism in the present patient was not consistent with Lenz-Majewski syndrome.